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Kapitel 5: Effizienz und Komplexität
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1
Analyse von insertionSort
insertionSort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> OrdList a
insertionSort []
= []
insertionSort (a:as) = insert a (insertionSort as)
insert :: (Ord a) => a -> [a] -> [a]
insert a []
= [a]
insert a (a’:as)
| a <= a’
= a:a’:as
| otherwise = a’:insert a as
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(insert.1)
(insert.2)
(insert.2.a)
(insert.2.b)
2
(insert c) (d:z)
⇒ | c <= d
| otherwise
⇒ | True
| otherwise
= c:d:z
(insert.2)
= d:insert c z
= c:d:z
(<=)
= d:insert c z
⇒ c : d : z
(insert.2.a)
beziehungsweise
⇒ | False
| otherwise
⇒ d:insert c z
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= c:d:z
(<=)
= d:insert c z
(insert.2.b)
3
T ime(insert c [])
=
1
T ime(insert c (d:z))
=
3,
T ime(insert c (d:z))
=
3 + T ime(insert c z),
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falls c 6 d
falls c > d
4
T ime(insert c [])
=
1
T ime(insert c (d:z))
=
3,
T ime(insert c (d:z))
=
3 + T ime(insert c z),
falls c 6 d
falls c > d
T ime(isort [])
=
1
T ime(isort (a:x))
=
1 + T ime(isort x ⇒ v) + T ime(insert a v)
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4
t_insertionSort :: (Ord a) => [a] -> (Int,OrdList a)
t_insertionSort []
= (1,[])
t_insertionSort (a:as) = (t+u+1,ys)
where (t,xs) = t_insertionSort as
(u,ys) = t_insert a xs
t_insert :: (Ord a) => a -> [a] -> (Int,[a])
t_insert a []
= (1,[a])
t_insert a (a’:as)
| a <= a’
= (3,a:a’:as)
| otherwise = (t+3,a’:xs)
where (t,xs) = t_insert a as
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5
Untere und obere Schranken
T isort (n) 6 T ime(isort [a1 ,...,an ]) 6 T isort (n)
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6
Untere und obere Schranken
T isort (n) 6 T ime(isort [a1 ,...,an ]) 6 T isort (n)
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T isort (n)
=
min{ T ime(isort x) | length x = n }
T isort (n)
=
max{ T ime(isort x) | length x = n }
6
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T insert (0)
=
1
T insert (n + 1)
=
3
T insert (0)
=
1
T insert (n + 1)
=
3 + T insert (n)
7
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T insert (0)
=
1
T insert (n + 1)
=
3
T insert (0)
=
1
T insert (n + 1)
=
3 + T insert (n)
T isort (0)
=
1
T isort (n + 1)
=
1 + T insert (n) + T isort (n)
T isort (0)
=
1
T isort (n + 1)
=
1 + T insert (n) + T isort (n)
7
> rsolve({insert(n) = 3 + insert(n-1), insert(0)=1, isort(n) = 1 +
insert(n-1) + isort(n-1), isort(0)=1},{insert,isort});
3 2 1
{insert(n ) = 1 + 3 n, isort(n ) = 1 + n + n }
2
2
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8
> rsolve({insert(n) = 3 + insert(n-1), insert(0)=1, isort(n) = 1 +
insert(n-1) + isort(n-1), isort(0)=1},{insert,isort});
3 2 1
{insert(n ) = 1 + 3 n, isort(n ) = 1 + n + n }
2
2
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T insert (0)
=
1
T insert (n + 1)
=
3
T insert (n)
=
3n + 1
T isort (0)
=
1
T isort (n + 1)
=
4n + 1
T isort (n)
=
(3/2)n2 + (1/2)n + 1
8
Asymptotische Zeit- und Platzeffizienz
Θ(g)
=
{ f | (∃n0 , c1 , c2 )(∀n > n0 ) c1 g(n) 6 f (n) 6 c2 g(n) }
(1)
Ist f ∈ Θ(g), so heißt g asymptotische Schranke von f .
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9
Asymptotische Zeit- und Platzeffizienz
Θ(g)
=
{ f | (∃n0 , c1 , c2 )(∀n > n0 ) c1 g(n) 6 f (n) 6 c2 g(n) }
(1)
Ist f ∈ Θ(g), so heißt g asymptotische Schranke von f .
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T insert (n)
∈
Θ(1)
T insert (n)
∈
Θ(n)
T isort (n)
∈
Θ(n)
T isort (n)
∈
Θ(n2 )
9
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f ∈ Θ(f )
(Reflexivität)
(2)
f ∈ Θ(g) ∧ g ∈ Θ(h) ⇒ f ∈ Θ(h)
(Transitivität)
(3)
f ∈ Θ(g) ⇒ g ∈ Θ(f )
(Symmetrie)
(4)
cf ∈ Θ(f )
(5)
na + nb ∈ Θ(na ) für a > b
(6)
loga n ∈ Θ(logb n)
(7)
10
Untere und obere asymptotische Schranken
Ω(g)
=
{ f | (∃n0 , c)(∀n > n0 ) cg(n) 6 f (n) }
(8)
O(g)
=
{ f | (∃n0 , c)(∀n > n0 ) f (n) 6 cg(n) }
(9)
Ist f ∈ Ω(g), so heißt g untere asymptotische Schranke von f . Für f ∈ O(g) heißt g
entsprechend obere asymptotische Schranke von f .
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11
Effizienz strukturell rekursiver Funktionen
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T insert (0)
=
0
T insert (n + 1)
=
1 + T insert (n)
T isort (0)
=
0
T isort (n + 1)
=
T insert (n) + T isort (n)
12
Effizienz strukturell rekursiver Funktionen
T insert (0)
=
0
T insert (n + 1)
=
1 + T insert (n)
T isort (0)
=
0
T isort (n + 1)
=
T insert (n) + T isort (n)
C(0)
=
c
C(n + 1)
=
f (n + 1) + kC(n)
C(n)
=
n
k c+
n
X
kn−i f (i)
(10)
i=1
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12
T insert (n)
=
n
X
1 = n ∈ Θ(n)
i=1
T isort (n)
=
n
X
i=1
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i−1=
1
n(n − 1) ∈ Θ(n2 )
2
13
Platzbedarf von isort
isort [a1 , ..., an−1 , an ]
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⇒
insert a1 (· · · (insert an−1 (insert an [])) · · ·)
⇒
[aπ(1) , ..., aπ(n−1) , aπ(n) ]
14
Platzbedarf von isort
isort [a1 , ..., an−1 , an ]
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⇒
insert a1 (· · · (insert an−1 (insert an [])) · · ·)
⇒
[aπ(1) , ..., aπ(n−1) , aπ(n) ]
Space(insert a x)
∈
Θ(length x)
Space(isort x)
∈
Θ(length x)
14
Worst-case Laufzeit von sortTree
sortTree :: Tree Integer -> [Integer]
sortTree (Leaf a) = [a]
sortTree (Br l r) = merge (sortTree l) (sortTree r)
merge
merge
merge
merge
|
|
:: (Ord a) =>
[]
bs
(a:as) []
(a:as) (b:bs)
a <= b
otherwise
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OrdList a -> OrdList a -> OrdList a
= bs
= a:as
= a:merge as (b:bs)
= b:merge (a:as) bs
15
T merge (m, n)
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=
m+n−1
für m, n > 1
16
T merge (m, n)
für m, n > 1
m+n−1
=
n = Zahl der Blätter (size):
T sT (1)
=
0
T sT (n)
=
n − 1 + max{ T sT (i) + T sT (n − i) | 0 < i < n }
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T sT (n) 0
1
3
6
10
15
21
28
36
T sT (n)
=
n
X
i=1
i−1=
1
n(n − 1) ∈ Θ(n2 )
2
Schlechtester Fall: entarteter Baum
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16
n = Tiefe (depth):
0
T sT (0)
0
T sT (n + 1)
0
T sT (n)
=
n
X
i=1
n−i
2
i
=
0
=
2n+1 − 1 + 2T sT (n)
(2 − 1) =
n
X
0
2n − 2n−i = n2n − 2n + 1 ∈ Θ(n2n )
i=1
Schlechtester Fall: ausgeglichener Baum
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17
T ime(sortTree t)
00
T sT (s, d)
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6
=
depth t*size t
sd
18
Ende 5.2 und 5.3 fehlen.
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19
Problemkomplexität
Bisher:
isort: „worst case“-Laufzeit von Θ(n2 )
mergeSort: „worst case“-Laufzeit von Θ(n log n)
Effizienz eines Sortierverfahrens
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20
Problemkomplexität
Bisher:
isort: „worst case“-Laufzeit von Θ(n2 )
mergeSort: „worst case“-Laufzeit von Θ(n log n)
Effizienz eines Sortierverfahrens
Jetzt:
Komplexität des Sortierproblems
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20
Entscheidungsbäume
a1<=a2
/
\
[a1,a2] [a2,a1]
a1<=a2
/
\
a1<=a3
a2<=a3
/
\
/
\
a2<=a3 [a3,a1,a2]
a1<=a3 [a3,a2,a1]
/
\
/
\
[a1,a2,a3] [a1,a3,a2] [a2,a1,a3] [a2,a3,a1]
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21
T imesort (n) > log2 (n!)
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22
T imesort (n) > log2 (n!)
Die Fakultätsfunktion läßt sich mit der Stirlingschen Formel abschätzen:
n n
√
n! > 2πn
.
e
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22
Insgesamt erhalten wir
T imesort (n) > log2
= log2
√
√
2πn
n n e
2πn + log2
n n
e
n n
= log2 (2πn)1/2 + log2
e
1
n
= log2 (2πn) + n log2
2
e
1
1
= log2 (2π) + log2 n + n log2 n − n log2 e
2
2
∈ Θ(n log n)
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23
Der Weg zu einer guten Problemlösung
1. Man verschafft sich Klarheit über die Komplexität des zu lösenden Problems.
2. Man entwickelt einen Algorithmus, dessen Effizienz in der Klasse der
Problemkomplexität liegt. Asymptotisch gesehen, ist dieser bereits „optimal“.
3. Man analysiert die konstanten Faktoren des Algorithmus und sucht diese zu
verbessern.
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24
Optimierung von mergeSort
build :: [a] -> Tree a
build []
= Nil
build [a]
= Leaf a
build (a:as) = Br (build (take k as))(build (drop k as))
where k = length as ‘div‘ 2
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25
Optimierung von mergeSort
build :: [a] -> Tree a
build []
= Nil
build [a]
= Leaf a
build (a:as) = Br (build (take k as))(build (drop k as))
where k = length as ‘div‘ 2
build’’ :: [a] -> Tree a
build’’ as = buildn (length as) as
where buildn :: Int -> [a] -> Tree a
buildn 1 (a:as) = Leaf a
buildn n as
= Br (buildn k (take k as))
(buildn (n-k) (drop k as))
where k = n ‘div‘ 2
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25
T build (n) = 5n + 2n log2 n − 4
T build00 (n) = 5n + n log2 n − 4
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26
build’ :: [a] -> Tree a
build’ as = fst (buildSplit (length as) as)
buildSplit n as = (Br l r, as’’)
where k = n ‘div‘ 2
(l,as’) = buildSplit
k as
(r,as’’) = buildSplit (n-k) as’
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27
build’ :: [a] -> Tree a
build’ as = fst (buildSplit (length as) as)
buildSplit n as = (Br l r, as’’)
where k = n ‘div‘ 2
(l,as’) = buildSplit
k as
(r,as’’) = buildSplit (n-k) as’
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T buildSplit (n)
=
6 + T buildSplit (bn/2c) + T buildSplit (dn/2e)
T buildSplit (1)
=
1
27
build’ :: [a] -> Tree a
build’ as = fst (buildSplit (length as) as)
buildSplit n as = (Br l r, as’’)
where k = n ‘div‘ 2
(l,as’) = buildSplit
k as
(r,as’’) = buildSplit (n-k) as’
T buildSplit (n)
=
6 + T buildSplit (bn/2c) + T buildSplit (dn/2e)
T buildSplit (1)
=
1
Für n = 2k : T buildSplit (2k ) = 6(2k+1 − 1) = 12n − 6 ∈ Θ(n)
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27
mergeSort as = sortTree (build as)
build []
= Nil
build [a]
= Leaf a
build (a:as) = Br (build (take k as))(build (drop k as))
where k = length as ‘div‘ 2
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28
mergeSort []
= sortTree(build [])
= sortTree Nil
mergeSort [a]
= sortTree(build [a])
= sortTree (Leaf
mergeSort (a:as) = sortTree(build (a:as))
= sortTree(Br (build (take k as)) (build
where k = length
= merge (sortTree (build (take k as))
sortTree (build (drop k as)))
where k = length
= merge (mergeSort (take k as)
mergeSort (drop k as)))
where k = length
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a)
= []
= [a]
(drop k as)))
as ‘div‘ 2
as ‘div‘ 2
as ‘div‘ 2
29
mergeSort’ []
= []
mergeSort’ [a]
= [a]
mergeSort’ (a:as) = merge (mergeSort (take k as))
(mergeSort (drop k as))
where k = length as ‘div‘ 2
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30
mtest = mergeSort [1..10000]
mtest’ = mergeSort’ [1..10000]
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31
Top down Baumkonstruktion
[8, 3, 5, 3, 6, 1]
[8, 3, 5]
[3, 6, 1]
[3, 5]
8
3
5
[6, 1]
3
[3, 5]
[3, 5, 8]
6
1
[1, 6]
[1, 3, 6]
[1, 3, 3, 5, 6, 8]
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32
Bottom up Baumkonstruktion
/\
/t1\
----
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/\
/t2\
----
/\
/t3\
----
/\
/t4\
----
/\
/t5\
----
/\
/t6\
----
/\
/t7\
----
33
Bottom up Baumkonstruktion
/\
/t1\
----
/\
/t2\
----
/\
/t3\
----
o
/
/\
/t1\
----
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/\
/t4\
----
/\
/t5\
----
o
\
/\
/t2\
----
/
/\
/t3\
----
/\
/t6\
----
/\
/t7\
----
o
\
/\
/t4\
----
/
/\
/t5\
----
\
/\
/t6\
----
/\
/t7\
----
33
bubuild :: [a] -> Tree a
bubuild = buildTree . map Leaf
buildTree
buildTree
buildTree
buildTree
:: [Tree a] -> Tree a
[] = Nil
[t] = t
ts = buildTree (buildLayer ts)
buildLayer
buildLayer
buildLayer
buildLayer
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:: [Tree a] -> [Tree a]
[]
= []
[t]
= [t]
(t1:t2:ts) = Br t1 t2:buildLayer ts
34
Berücksichtigung von Läufen
16 14 13 4 9 10 11 5 1 15 6 2 3 7 8 12
16 14 13 4 | 9 10 11 | 5 1 | 15 6 2 | 3 7 8 12.
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35
runs
runs
runs
runs
:: [a] ->
[]
=
[a]
=
(a:b:x) =
[[a]]
[[]]
[[a]]
if a<=b then ascRun b [a] x
else descRun b [a] x
ascRun, descRun :: a -> [a] -> [a] -> [[a]]
ascRun a as []
= [reverse (a:as)]
ascRun a as (b:y) = if a<=b then ascRun b (a:as) y
else reverse (a:as):runs (b:y)
descRun a as []
= [a:as]
descRun a as (b:y) = if a<=b then (a:as):runs (b:y)
else descRun b (a:as) y
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36
Geschmeidiges Merge-Sort
smsort :: Ord a => [a] -> [a]
smsort = mergeRuns . build’ . runs
mergeRuns :: Ord a => Tree [a] -> [a]
mergeRuns (Leaf x) = x
mergeRuns (Br l r) = merge (mergeRuns l) (mergeRuns r)
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37
Nachtrag zu Listen
[1 ..] Liste der positiven Zahlen,
[1 .. 99] Liste der positiven Zahlen bis einschließlich 99,
[1, 3 ..] Liste der ungeraden, positiven Zahlen,
[1, 3 .. 99] Liste der ungeraden, positiven Zahlen bis einschließlich 99.
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38
Listenbeschreibungen (list comprehensions)
squares :: [Integer]
squares = [n*n | n <- [0..99]]
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39
Listenbeschreibungen (list comprehensions)
squares :: [Integer]
squares = [n*n | n <- [0..99]]
map’ f x = [f a | a <- x]
squares = map (\n -> n * n) [0..99]
a ‘elem‘ x = or [a==b | b <- x]
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39
divisors :: (Integral a) => a -> [a]
divisors n = [d | d <- [1..n], n ‘mod‘ d == 0]
primes :: (Integral a) => [a]
primes = [n | n <- [2..], divisors n == [1,n]]
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40
divisors :: (Integral a) => a -> [a]
divisors n = [d | d <- [1..n], n ‘mod‘ d == 0]
primes :: (Integral a) => [a]
primes = [n | n <- [2..], divisors n == [1,n]]
qsort’’ :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a]
qsort’’ []
= []
qsort’’ (a:x) = qsort’’ [b | b <- x, b < a]
++ [a]
++ qsort’’ [ b | b <- x, b >= a]
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40
[(a,b) | a <- [0,1], b <- [1..3]]
⇒
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[(0,1),(0,2),(0,3),(1,1),(1,2),(1,3)]
41
Felder (Arrays)
squares’ :: Array Int Int
squares’ = array (0,99) [(i,i*i) | i <- [0..99]]
squares’!7 ⇒ 7*7 ⇒ 49
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42
Felder (Arrays)
squares’ :: Array Int Int
squares’ = array (0,99) [(i,i*i) | i <- [0..99]]
squares’!7 ⇒ 7*7 ⇒ 49
multTable :: Array (Int, Int) Int
multTable = array ((0,0),(9,9))
[((i,j),i*j) | i <- [0..9], j <- [0..9]]
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42
Funktionen auf Indextypen
range
inRange
array
bounds
assocs
(!)
::
::
::
::
::
::
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(Ix
(Ix
(Ix
(Ix
(Ix
(Ix
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
a)
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
=>
(a,a)
(a,a)
(a,a)
Array
Array
Array
-> [a]
-> a -> Bool
-> [(a,b)] -> Array a b
a b -> (a,a)
a b -> [(a,b)]
a b -> a -> b
43
Funktionstabellierung
tabulate :: (Ix a) => (a -> b) -> (a,a) -> Array a b
tabulate f bs = array bs [(i, f i) | i <- range bs]
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44
Funktionstabellierung
tabulate :: (Ix a) => (a -> b) -> (a,a) -> Array a b
tabulate f bs = array bs [(i, f i) | i <- range bs]
∀i <- range bs : (tabulate f bs)!i == f i
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44
Anwendung Tabellierung
badfib 0 = 1
badfib 1 = 1
badfib n = badfib (n-2) + badfib (n-1)
fib n = t!n
where t = tabulate f (0,n)
f 0 = 1
f 1 = 1
f n = t!(n-2) + t!(n-1)
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45
listArray :: (Ix a) => (a,a) -> [b] -> Array a b
listArray bs vs = array bs (zip (range bs) vs)
zip [a1 ,a2 ,...] [b1 ,b2 ,...] = [(a1 ,b1 ),(a2 ,b2 ),...]
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46
Binäre Suche
binarySearch :: (Ord b, Integral a, Ix a) => Array a b -> b -> Bool
binarySearch a e = within (bounds a)
where within (l,r) = l <= r
&& let m = (l + r) ‘div‘ 2
in case compare e (a!m) of
LT -> within (l, m-1)
EQ -> True
GT -> within (m+1, r)
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47
Anwendung: Ein lineares Sortierverfahren
countingSort :: (Ix a) => (a, a) -> [a] -> [a]
countingSort bs x = [ a | (a,n) <- assocs t, i <- [1..n]]
where t = accumArray (+) 0 bs [(a,1) | a <- x, inRange bs a]
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48
Anwendung: Ein lineares Sortierverfahren
countingSort :: (Ix a) => (a, a) -> [a] -> [a]
countingSort bs x = [ a | (a,n) <- assocs t, i <- [1..n]]
where t = accumArray (+) 0 bs [(a,1) | a <- x, inRange bs a]
listSort :: (Ix a) => (a, a) -> [[a]] -> [[a]]
listSort bs xs
| drop 8 xs == [] = insertionSort xs
| otherwise
= [[] | [] <- xs] ++
[a:x | (a, ys) <- assocs t, x <- listSort bs ys]
where t = accumArray (\y b -> b:y) [] bs [(a,x) | (a:x) <- xs]
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48
Array-Update
(//) :: (Ix a) => Array a b -> [(a, b)] -> Array a b
unitMatrix :: (Ix a, Num b) => (a,a) -> Array (a,a) b
unitMatrix [email protected](l,r) = array bs’ [(ij,0) | ij <- range bs’]
// [((i,i),1) | i <- range bs]
where bs’ = ((l,l),(r,r))
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49
Pascalsches Dreieck
0
1
2
3
4
5
6 7
8
0 1
Programmieren in Haskell
1 1
1
2 1
2
1
3 1
3
3
1
4 1
4
6
4
1
5 1
5
10
10
5
1
6 1
6
15
20
15
6
7 1
7
21
35
35
21
7 1
8 1
8
28
56
70
56
28 8
1
1
50
pascalsTriangle :: Int -> Array (Int,Int) Int
pascalsTriangle n = a
where a = array ((0,0),(n,n)) (
[((i,j),0) | i <- [0..n], j <- [i+1..n]]
++ [((i,0),1) | i <- [0..n]]
++ [((i,i),1) | i <- [1..n]]
++ [((i,j),a!(i-1,j) + a!(i-1,j-1)) | i <- [2..n],
j <- [1..i-1]])
Programmieren in Haskell
51
Binomialkoeffizienten
(x + y)n
=
!
n
X
n k n−k
x y
k
k=0
n
k
Programmieren in Haskell
!
=
8
<
n!
(n−k)!k!
06k6n
:
0
06n<k
,
52
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