Ozone Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus - hno

4th International Symposia on Ozone Applications
April 6th through 9th 2004, Havana City, Cuba
Ozone Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus.
Menéndez S., León O.S., Al-Dalien S.M.,
Martínez G., Candelario E.J. and Fernádez-Montequín J.I. (Cuba)
It is well recognized the presence of oxidative stress in Diabetes Mellitus. Ozone can
exert its protective effects by means of an oxidative preconditioning, stimulating
and/or preserving the endogenous antioxidant systems. The aim of this paper is to
evaluate the ozone effects in the oxidative stress associated to diabetes, in a
preclinical and clinical studies. Preclinical study - Rats were divided in: 1- negative
control group; 2- positive control group, using streptozotocin (STZ) as a diabetes
inductor; 3- ozone, 10 treatments (1 mg/kg), after STZ-induced diabetes and 4oxygen (26 mg/kg), as group 3 but using oxygen. There was a correspondence
between the decrease of hyperglycemia, the reduction of oxidative stress and the
histopathological results. Ozone treatment was able to protect b -cells against STZ
damage demonstrating how its antioxidant properties preserved b -cells function and
reduced hyperglycemia induced by STZ. Clinical study - 101 Patients with
neuroinfectious diabetic foot were divided in 2 groups: ozone, 52 patients (using 20
sessions of rectal and local ozone) and antibiotic, 49 patients (using systemic and
local antibiotics). The efficacy of the treatments was evaluated comparing the
glycemic figures, the area and perimeter of the lesion and the biochemical
parameters involved in oxidative stress and endothelial damage, between both
groups. Ozone treatment improved glycemic control by decreasing hyperglycemia,
increased insulin sensitivity, prevented oxidative stress associated to Diabetes
Mellitus and its complications, standardized organic peroxides figures and activated
superoxide dismutase in comparison with antibiotic therapy. The pharmacodynamic
effect of ozone, in the treatment of patients with neuroinfectious diabetic foot, can be
ascribed to the possibility of being a superoxide scavenger. Clinically, patients
treated with ozone therapy had a better (also with a less number of amputations) and
faster recovery of their lesions in comparison with the patients treated with antibiotic
therapy (26 days vs 34 days). Any side effect was found. These results
demonstrated that medical ozone treatment could be a future alternative therapy of
diabetes and its complications.
Adult –Onset Diabetes – Oxygenated Blood Can
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From: Alternative Medicine Magazine
Issue 26, November 1998; Pages 26-28
YOU DON'T normally think of oxygen as a treatment for diabetes, but
according to Frank Shallenberger, M.D., H.M.D., director of the Nevada
Center of Alternative and Anti-Aging Medicine in Carson City, Nevada,
ozone (a less stable, more reactive form of oxygen) can produce
remarkable improvements in both the major and secondary symptoms
of adult- onset diabetes. The connection between the ozone and
diabetes is the blood circulation, Dr. Shallenberger says, as
demonstrated in the following cases.
Virginia, 51, had been diabetic for five years and was taking Glucotrol,
an oral medication for controlling blood sugar levels. However, Virginia
came to Dr. Shallenberger seeking treatment for recurrent breast
cancer, a tumor that periodically grew then diminished.
Dr. Shallenberger decided to ozonate her blood as ozone is often used
as a healing substance in alternative cancer treatments. He drew 150
cc of Virginia's blood then injected it with ozone gas. Ozonating the
sample of Virginia's blood took about 40 minutes, after which it was re
infused into her body. He did this daily to address the cancer.
What surprised Dr. Shallenberger in this case was that not only the
breast cancer responded to ozonation (it started to dissolve) but so did
Virginia's diabetes. Her blood sugar levels began dropping too low (a
condition called hypoglycemia) indicating that the ozone and Glucotrol
were controlling her blood sugar too well. Dr. Shallenberger reduced her
Glucotrol dosage to once daily, then soon after, as the low blood sugar
trend continued, eliminated the drug altogether. "Practically speaking,
Virginia didn't have diabetes any longer," notes Dr. Shallenberger.
How did ozone bring her diabetes under control? Diabetics always run
the risk of complications, such as loss of vision, heart disease, nerve
dysfunction, and gangrenous limbs. Diabetics usually have considerable
circulation problems such that the actual blood flow to their tissues is
diminished, explains Dr. Shallenberger. Patients often have difficulty
digesting fats (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) and their arteries
tend to thicken and harden.
"This is compounded by the fact that what little blood reaches their
tissues is less effective than it should be and is unable to deliver oxygen
to those tissues," says Dr. Shallenberger. "The tissues become oxygen
depleted, which explains why diabetics have problems with gangrene
and why they're unable to resist infections."
A prime reason the red blood cells in the diabetic's blood are unable to
release their oxygen is that a key molecule called 2,3diphosphoglycerate, or 2,3-dpg for short, is in reduced supply. Under
normal conditions, 2,3-dpg stimulates red blood cells which carry
oxygen to deliver it to the tissues; but if there isn't enough of this
molecule in the system, the red blood cells can't deliver the oxygen.
When you introduce ozone--that is, more oxygen-into the blood, more
2,3-dpg is produced and the oxygen-delivery system and the efficiency
of blood circulation start to improve. The ozone also appears to
enhance the activity of cellular metabolism, the continual conversion of
food into energy. Dr. Shallenberger likens the metabolism-heightening
effect of ozone to a similar benefit to diabetics obtained through
vigorous exercise. It oxygenates the tissues and gets all the body
processes running better, he says.
Levels of ATP, an important molecule which stores energy in the cells,
are also enhanced through ozonation. Among other functions, ATP
helps each cell maintain the integrity of its membrane, thereby enabling
it to regulate the passage of materials into and out of the cell, says Dr.
Shallenberger. If the cell membrane collapses, the cell dies; if a lot of
cells die you start getting tissue death, and gangrene becomes a
possibility. Gangrene in a toe was a serious diabetic complication
besetting Quentin, 50. His diabetes was poorly controlled, mainly
because he was reluctant to comply with dietary restrictions, says Dr.
Specifically, he didn't want to give up drinking beer. Even with a daily
dosage of four Micronase pills (another blood sugar-controlling drug),
Quentin's blood sugar level was around 230; a safe, normal level
ranges between 70 and 120.
Dr. Shallenberger already had worked with Quentin for two years,
prescribing dietary changes, herbs, and supplements, but when Quentin
developed gangrene on the third toe of his right foot and conventional
doctors were scheduling him for amputation at the ankle, Dr.
Shallenberger decided to try ozonation. "Quentin's toe was completely
black and they were going to amputate his entire foot because the rest
of the tissue was on the borderline of becoming gangrenous, too," he
For Quentin's treatment, Dr. Shallenberger added another element to
the ozonation procedure: chelation. The Chelation would help improve
Quentin's blood circulation by removing heavy metals and arterial
plaque. Dr. Shallenberger calls his combined treatment "chezone."
Chelation improves blood circulation to the tissues, he explains, which
means they get more oxygen. This in turn improves their metabolic rate
(energy processing efficiency) and enables them to make better use of
glucose (blood sugar). When you have higher efficiency in using
glucose, you are much closer to controlling the diabetes naturally, says
Dr. Shallenberger. Using ozone, as stated above, helps the patient
utilize the available oxygen better, due to improved circulation.
Combining Chelation with ozone in effect doubles the circulation
In addition to chezone, Dr. Shallenberger put an ozone extremity bag
around Quentin's right foot, filled it with ozone gas, and left it in place for
20 minutes. In this way, the ozone was absorbed through the skin, an
approach that has proven successful in treating chronic sores and skin
ulcers, says Dr. Shallenberger.
Each time he gave Quentin a chezone treatment (ten in all, one per
day), he also ozonated his foot. After about two weeks, the foot was
much improved; the area between the ankle and gangrenous toe had
healed which meant only the toe would have to be amputated.
After the surgery, Quentin hurt his foot in such a way that the stitches
broke open and a large ulcerating sore formed. His doctors talked about
amputation again, but after another six weeks of chezone and foot
ozonation treatments, Quentin's foot healed again. Following the first
two weeks of intensive treatments, Dr. Shallenberger gave him a
chezone once weekly and foot ozonation three times weekly. In ensuing
months, Quentin received maintenance treatments.
About ten weeks after the first chezone treatment, "the lesion in
Quentin's foot was entirely healed and he was down to only two
Micronase pills a day," says Dr. Shallenberger. "If I had been able to
treat his toe before it went black, I probably could have saved it." As it
turned out, Dr. Shallenberger did save Quentin's right foot twice. "I'm
not convinced you can get all diabetics off their medication. To me the
point is how well you can control the blood sugar."
In the case of Leonard, 64, controlling his sugar intake was central to
being able to get his diabetes and gangrene complications under
control. Leonard, who developed diabetes six years earlier, was on
insulin and Glucophage (another diabetes drug) to control his blood
sugar levels.
However, Leonard developed a blister on the sole of his foot; when this
became infected, his doctor cleaned out all the infected tissue, leaving a
hole in his foot. Over a three-month period, this wound failed to heal
even with antibiotics and Leonard's doctors were talking about
amputating his foot.
Dr. Shallenberger started Leonard on the same combination chezone
and foot ozonation program that had worked so well for Quentin. Then
he added a piece of advice. "You must cut down on your sugar intake."
Leonard ate a lot of white sugar in his diet and none of his conventional
doctors apparently made the link between high dietary sugar intake and
the inability of his infection to heal. "White blood cells, the immune cells
that fight infection, cease to function in the presence of elevated
glucose levels," says Dr. Shallenberger.
After two treatments, Leonard's foot was noticeably improved and his
energy levels were heightened. The initial progress motivated Leonard
to comply fully with the program. Dr. Shallenberger started Leonard on
a series of nutrients and remedies including chromium and vanadium, to
help his body utilize its natural pancreatic insulin.
People with adult-onset diabetes produce insulin but their system
becomes unable to use it, a condition called insulin resistance. In fact,
the pancreas of such a patient generally produces too much insulin; as
the body fails to act on this insulin, the pancreas produces yet more.
The minerals chromium and vanadium break this cycle and support the
body in making use again of pancreatic insulin, says Dr. Shallenberger.
Among the other elements of Leonard's program were pancreatic
enzymes (to support pancreas function and to improve digestion; 400800 mg three times daily), the hormone melatonin (to bolster the
immune system; 3 mg once daily), and the hormone DHEA, levels of
which tend to be about 50% below normal in diabetics.
Low DHEA levels may help explain the characteristic weight gain in
people with adult-onset diabetes, says Dr. Shallenberger. He notes that
DHEA doses will vary with each patient. "Women should take enough
(usually 10-25 mg daily) to raise the serum DHEA-sulfate to between
2,000 and 3,000 mg/ml, while men should take enough (usually 50-100
mg daily) to raise it to between 3,000 and 4,000 mg/ml."
He also gave Leonard a specialized product (made from the fungus
Mucor racemosus) called Mucokehl, developed in Germany by the
Sanum company, and now used selectively (as part of a line of several
dozen similar substances) by North American physicians. The Mucokehl
would help regulate microorganisms which affect the thickness and
texture of the blood. After a month of treatments, Leonard's foot was
completely healed, says Dr. Shallenberger. As his blood sugar came
under better control, Leonard was able to lower his daily insulin intake
and resume his busy life. return to list
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Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007 Mar;51(2):204-11.
[Microcirculation in diabetes: implications for
chronic complications and treatment of the
[Article in Portuguese]
Aguiar LG, Villela NR, Bouskela E.
Laboratório de Pesquisas em Microcirculação, Departamento de Ciências
Fisiológicas, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Universidade do Estado
do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Diabetic microangiopathy is responsible for an important rate of
morbidity and mortality related to the disease. Endothelial damage
seems to be the triggering factor in the pathogenesis of microvascular
complications. Diabetes mellitus and other metabolic diseases are
associated to endothelial dysfunction, the most precocious known
marker of atherosclerosis. Changes on microvascular reactivity are
present in patients with diabetes mellitus, as well as in individuals with
risk factors for this disease. Evaluation of endothelial and microvascular
functions is possible using different invasive or preferentially noninvasive methods. Adequate control of diabetes mellitus might postpone
or perhaps even prevent the microvascular disease. Microvascular
dysfunction, when seen only by changes on microvascular reactivity,
could be ameliorated with correction of risk factors or drug treatment.
PMID: 17505627 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text
Diabetes mellitus (Zuckerkrankheit) –
Was Sie wissen sollten
Eine Information der Kassenärztlichen Vereinigung Saarland
Liebe Patientin, lieber Patient,
mit dieser Information möchten wir Sie über die Versorgungsmöglichkeiten von Patienten mit
einem Diabetes mellitus (Zuckerkrankheit) informieren. Die Möglichkeiten zur Therapie dieser
Erkrankung haben sich in den letzten Jahren deutlich verbessert. Im Mittelpunkt steht vor allem die
Vorbeugung und verbesserte Betreuung der Patienten. Wir möchten Ihnen einen kurzen Überblick
über Erkrankungsformen und Therapiemöglichkeiten geben und Ihnen die in den vergangenen
Jahren entwickelten speziellen Behandlungsprogramme (Disease-Management-Programme) für
Diabetiker vorstellen. Ziel dieser Information ist es, Sie möglichst frühzeitig auf Hinweise einer
Zuckerkrankheit aufmerksam zu machen, damit Sie rechtzeitig Ihren Arzt aufsuchen können.
Darüber hinaus finden Sie Internetadressen von Patientenvereinigungen, Fachgesellschaften und
weiteren Organisationen, bei denen Sie Wissenswertes über die Krankheit erfahren.
Was bedeutet eigentlich Diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus heißt soviel wie „honigsüßer Durchfluss“. Zu den Kennzeichen gehört, dass der
Körper vermehrt Zucker ausscheidet. Umgangssprachlich wird die Krankheit daher auch
Zuckerkrankheit genannt. Allein in Deutschland leben mittlerweile rund 4 Millionen DiabetesKranke, das sind etwa fünf Prozent der Bevölkerung. 1 Rund 90 Prozent davon haben einen so
genannten Typ- 2-Diabetes-mellitus, der vorwiegend im höheren Alter auftritt und in enger
Beziehung zur eigenen Lebensweise steht. Fünf Prozent leiden am Typ-1-Diabetes-mellitus, der
vor allem bei Kindern und Jugendlichen auftritt. Andere Formen sind eher selten. Für alle
Erkrankungsformen gilt, dass zu viel Glucose – das ist eine Form von Zucker – im Blut vorkommt.
Die ersten Symptome der zu hohen Blutzuckerwerte sind insbesondere großer Durst, häufiges
Wasserlassen und Müdigkeit. Spätkomplikationen sind beispielsweise Durchblutungsstörungen,
schlecht heilende Wunden oder Nervenschädigungen, die zu Erblindung, Nierenerkrankungen
oder Fußamputationen führen können.
Was unterscheidet die beiden Hauptformen?
Beim Diabetes mellitus vom Typ 1 zerstört in den meisten Fällen das eigene Immunsystem bereits
bei Kindern oder Jugendlichen – die Mehrzahl erkrankt im Alter von 10 bis 15 Jahren – die
insulinproduzierenden Zellen in der Bauchspeicheldrüse. Dem Körper fehlt das Insulin, ein
lebenswichtiger Stoff, der wie ein Türöffner dafür sorgt, dass Zucker aus dem Blut in die
Körperzellen aufgenommen wird. Die Folge ist ein zu hoher Blutzuckerspiegel.
Beim Diabetes mellitus vom Typ 2 produziert die Bauchspeicheldrüse zwar ausreichend Insulin,
aber die Zellen, die dafür sorgen, dass mithilfe des Insulins Glucose aus dem Blut in den Körper
gelangt, reagieren nicht mehr auf diesen Türöffner. Sie sind gegen Insulin resistent geworden und
lassen die Glucose nicht hinein. Auch hier ist die Folge ein Anstieg der Blutzuckerwerte.
Wie therapiert man Diabetes mellitus?
Während Patienten mit Diabetes mellitus vom Typ 1 regelmäßig Insulin spritzen müssen, können
Menschen mit Diabetes mellitus vom Typ 2 vor allem im Anfangsstadium den Blutzuckerspiegel
schon durch eine angemessene Ernährung und viel Bewegung normalisieren. In einem späteren
Stadium werden auch hier Medikamente eingesetzt. Eine Zuckerkrankheit bedeutet für die
Betroffenen, ihr Leben grundsätzlich umzustellen. Das heißt nicht, dass sie in Zukunft auf alles
verzichten müssen, aber sie müssen lernen, wie die Krankheit funktioniert und was sie selber tun
dürfen und können. Daher ist ein wesentlicher Baustein der Diabetestherapie die Schulung der
Patienten, damit sie die Grundlagen und Details der Krankheit verstehen lernen. Darüber hinaus
erfahren sie, wie sie durch
1 Quelle:
Gesundheitsberichtserstattung des Bundes, Heft 24 Diabetes mellitus, 14.03.2005: www.rki.de
Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Saarland – Faktoreistraße 4 – 66111 Saarbrücken – Tel.: 0681/ 4003-0 –
www.kvsaarland.deErnährungsumstellung, ausreichende Bewegung und Medikamente mit der
Zuckerkrankheit ein normales Leben führen können.
Wie finde ich den richtigen Arzt?
Wer einen speziell geschulten Arzt in seiner Nähe sucht, findet die entsprechenden
Ansprechpartner über die kostenlose Arztsuche der Kassenärztlichen Vereinigung Saarland:
www.kvsaarland.de. Welche Schulung am besten für den Erkrankten geeignet ist, können nur
Patient und Arzt gemeinsam entscheiden. Diabetologisch geschulte Haus- und Fachärzte haben
einen Überblick über das aktuelle Angebot und können daher dem Patienten individuelle
Schulungsmöglichkeiten empfehlen.
Was sind Disease-Management-Programme (DMP)?
Hinter dem Begriff DMP verbergen sich strukturierte Behandlungsprogramme, mit deren Hilfe
chronisch Kranke möglichst optimal versorgt werden sollen. Diese Programme bestehen für
verschiedene chronische Krankheiten, so auch für Diabetes mellitus. Das Ziel dieses Programms
für Diabetiker ist es, Spätkomplikationen der Zuckerkrankheit zu verhindern oder zumindest so
schnell zu erkennen, dass man sie noch rechtzeitig therapieren kann. Dies soll mithilfe von
Qualitätskriterien und einer engen Zusammenarbeit aller am Behandlungsprozess beteiligten
Personen erreicht werden.
Wo gibt es Hilfe?
Weitere Informationen zum Diabetes mellitus erhalten Sie bei folgenden Institutionen:
Der Deutsche Diabetiker Bund (DDB) ist die größte und älteste Selbsthilfeorganisation für
Diabetiker in Deutschland: www.diabetikerbund.de.
Der Bund diabetischer Kinder und Jugendlicher e.V. hilft betroffenen Eltern bei sozialen,
medizinischen und psychologischen Problemen: www.bund-diabetischer-kinder.de.
Die Deutsche Diabetes Stiftung (DDS) informiert vorrangig die Bevölkerung über die Gefahren
der Zuckererkrankung und entwickelt Projekte zur Vorsorge: www.diabetesstiftung.de.
Die Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft (DDG) ist eine wissenschaftliche Fachgesellschaft und
widmet sich der Behandlung des Diabetes mellitus: www.deutsche-diabetes -gesellschaft.de.
Die Deutsche Diabetes-Union e.V. (DDU) ist eine Vereinigung von Diabetikern, Ärzten und
Wissenschaftlern: www.diabetes -union.de.
Das Robert Koch-Institut (RKI) gibt fortlaufend Themenhefte zur Gesundheitsberichterstattung
heraus. Darin werden spezifische Informationen zum Gesundheitszustand der Bevölkerung
veröffentlicht. Ein Heft zum Diabetes mellitus finden Sie unter der Internetadresse: www.rki.de.
Das Programm für Nationale Versorgungsleitlinien (NVL) ist eine gemeinsame Initiative der
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der
Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen
Fachgesellschaften und der KBV zur Förderung von Qualität und Transparenz in der Medizin. Auf der
Internetseite der
NVL finden Sie
Informationen zum Thema
Das Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG) veröffentlicht
unter der Webadresse www.gesundheitsinformation.de seit Juli 2005 evidenzbasierte (wissenschaftlich
verlässliche) Patienteninformationen. Hier finden sie auch Informationen zum Diabetes mellitus.
Wer ist die Kassenärztliche Vereinigung?
Die Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Saarland ist die Dachorganisation der rund 1.800
niedergelassenen Ärzte (Haus- und Fachärzte) und Psychotherapeuten im Saarland. Sie stellt
unter anderem sicher, dass es genügend Ärzte und Psychotherapeuten im Saarland gibt, die Sie
auf qualitativ hohem Niveau versorgen. Und sie sorgt dafür, dass Sie den Arzt und
Psychotherapeuten Ihrer Wahl aufsuchen können. Egal, in welcher Krankenkasse Sie versichert
Sie möchten gerne mehr über Ihre Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Saarland erfahren?
Im Internet steht Ihnen unser Service unter der Adresse www.kvsaarland.de rund um die
Uhr zur Verfügung.
Kassenärztliche Vereinigung Saarland – Faktoreistraße 4 – 66111 Saarbrücken – Tel.: 0681/ 4003-0 –
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Wieviel Prozent des jeweiligen nationalen Gesundheitsbudgets fallen auf den D
Antwort von Prof. Werner A. Scherbaum, Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum an der H
Deutsche Diabetes-Klinik, zuletzt aktualisiert im März 2005:
Die verheerenden Komplikationen des Diabetes wie Erblindung, Nierenversagen und Her
Gesundheitssystem eine große Last auf. Es wird geschätzt, dass der Diabetes mellitus m
10 % der jeweiligen nationalen Gesundheitsbudgets verbraucht.
» zur Übersicht
Zahl der Diabetiker in Deutschland. Wie viele Diabetiker gibt es in Deutschland,
Antwort von Prof. Werner A. Scherbaum, Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum Düsseld
Vor 10 Jahren konnten in zwei voneinander unabhängiger Untersuchungen einmal in We
aus dem Deutschen Diabetes-Forschungsinstitut) und in Ost-Deutschland (Prof. Michaeli
in Karlsburg) die Zahlen für Diabetiker in Deutschland erhoben werden. Danach haben 5
entspricht also bei einer Bevölkerung von 80 Mio. 4 Millionen Menschen.
Aus Erhebungen in unseren Nachbarländern wissen wir, dass im Laufe der letzten 10 Jah
gestiegen ist, so dass wir heute in Deutschland mit 5 Millionen bekannten Diabetikern re
Deutschland neue Erhebungen, die aus dem Deutschen Diabetes-Zentrum stammen. Da
65. und 74. Lebensjahr 100 %; in unseren Nachbarländern beträgt sie 40 -50 %. Danac
Diabetikern in Deutschland auf 7-8 Millionen. Auch heute noch beträgt die Zeit zwischen
Diagnosestellung 5 -8 Jahre. In dieser Zeit können schon Organschäden auftreten. Dahe
Diabetes mellitus schon zum Zeitpunkt der Diagnosestellung Langzeitfolgen der Erkranku
Anatomie der Bauchspeicheldrüse
Gewebe einer gesunden Bauchspeicheldrüse
Die Bauchspeicheldrüse (Pankreas) liegt quer im Oberbauch
unterhalb des Magens und vor der Wirbelsäule. Sie reicht quer von
der Milz bis zur Schleife des Zwölffingerdarms.
Sie wiegt 60 bis 100 g, ist 15 bis 20 cm lang, maximal 9 cm breit
und etwa 2 cm dick. Über das gesamte Pankreas inselartig verteilt
liegen die Langerhans'schen Inseln. In diesen Inseln wird das
blutzuckersenkende Hormon Insulin produziert und in das Blut
abgegeben. Unter anderem bilden diese Inseln auch die Hormone
Glukagon und Somatostatin. Der weitaus größte Teil der
Bauchspeicheldrüse (über 95%) produziert Verdauungssäfte
(Enzyme), die über einen Ausführungsgang in den Zwölffingerdarm
Zur Erfüllung der Körperfunktionen wie zum Beispiel Herztätigkeit,
Atmung, und Bewegung braucht der Körper Energie, die durch die
Verbrennung von Nährstoffen gewonnen wird. Kohlenhydrate
(Zucker) sind die wesentlichen rasch verfügbaren Brennstoffe des
Körpers und erhöhen direkt den Blutzucker. Sie stammen
überwiegend aus pflanzlichen Nahrungsquellen, die Zucker
enthalten oder sich in Zucker umwandeln lassen, wie zum Beispiel
Stärke aus Kartoffeln, Mehl, Brot, Obst, Gemüse. Einfache oder
reine Kohlenhydrate sind Traubenzucker (Glukose) und
Fruchtzucker (Fruktose), die im Darm nicht erst chemisch gespalten
werden müssen. Zusammengesetzte Zucker sind Rohrzucker,
Malzzucker und Milchzucker. Praktisch gleichwertig sind die
Zuckerersatzstoffe Sorbit und Xylit. Traubenzucker (Glukose) kann
nur mit Hilfe von Insulin in die Zelle eingeschleust werden.
Das Hormon Insulin spielt eine zentrale Rolle im Stoffwechsel des
Menschen. Insulin ist vor allem für den Transport von Zucker aus
dem Blut in die Zellen verantwortlich, wo dieser zur
Energiegewinnung verbrannt wird.
Darüber hinaus beeinflusst Insulin auch die Regulation des Fettund Eiweißhaushalts. Insulin wird in den Beta-Zellen der
Langerhansschen Inseln der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Pankreas)
gebildet. Das Insulinmolekül ist ein aus zwei Ketten von
Aminosäuren (Eiweißbausteinen) bestehendes Eiweiß (Protein). Bei
Aufnahme über den Mund würde das Eiweißhormon Insulin im
Verdauungstrakt gespalten und seine Wirkung verlieren. Daher
kann es nicht in Form von Tabletten eingenommen werden, sondern
muss dem Körper in der Regel durch Spritzen verabreicht werden.
Prof. Dr. med. Werner Scherbaum, Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum
an der Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Deutsche DiabetesKlinik
Why Should We Care About Diabetes?
Once you know the facts, it is hard not to care about diabetes. In
America alone, 17 million people have diabetes. Approximately 1
million Americans are diagnosed each year, and a third of all the
people with diabetes are unaware they have it. In the U.S., diabetes
is the 5 th leading cause of death by disease and constitutes 20% of
all deaths.
WHO (World Health Organization) has declared that there is an
epidemic of diabetes. Worldwide, there are 200 million diabetes
patients, not including those who still do not know that they have it.
In the next decade, the projected number of known diabetics is
expected to reach over 250 million.
Because of the small amount of attention that has been paid to the
disease despite these alarming numbers, the rise in diabetes has
often been called the “Silent Epidemic”. A possible cause for this
epidemic has been attributed to changes in modern lifestyle:
• The type of food consumed contains higher numbers of calories
and purified sugars; • The typical meal size has increased; •
People are not exercising adequately; • Higher stress levels, and;
• An increase in the elderly population.
What Exactly Is Diabetes?
There are several definitions of diabetes, but the most commonly
agreed upon definition is that diabetes is a condition when a
person's ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) is
impaired. Basically, blood sugar does not get burned inside the
muscles and tissues, but rather stays in the blood. This results in
high blood sugar levels. A person with a sugar level of above
150 ml/dl in the blood in the morning is diagnosed as
Insulin allows the body to convert sugar in the blood into energy. It
is secreted by ß (beta) cells in the pancreas. So, in a diabetic,
either no insulin or inadequate levels of insulin are being produced.
Furthermore, even if insulin is produced in a diabetic, it is highly
unlikely that it will be properly utilized.
What Types Of Diabetes Are There?
There are commonly two types of diabetes.
Type I diabetes is when the body cannot produce insulin. Type I
diabetics must have daily insulin shots. A more rigorous definition
can be that Type I diabetes is caused by an auto-immune process:
the body regards the ß beta cell as foreign objects and produces an
antibody to kill its own ß beta cells.
For Type II diabetics, the body produces insufficient amounts of
insulin. Or, if the body produces enough insulin, the body is either
unable to respond to the insulin or the insulin is used inefficiently
(this is called insulin resistance). Type II diabetes, or also known as
Adult Onset Diabetes, is more common than Type I.
How Can Having High Blood Glucose Affect Me?
Diabetes is much more than just a relative lack of insulin. In one
sense, it is a disease that affects the blood vessels, or capillaries. A
high concentration of sugar in the blood from relative lack or
sensitivity of insulin is still not completely understood. However,
it has detrimental effects on the blood vessels and they gradually
cease to function properly. Since every organ or tissue in the body
depends upon capillary flow to transmit oxygen and glucose and
remove waste products, this eventually leads to end-organ damage
supplied by those capillaries.
As every cell is dependant to a large degree on glucose for its fuel,
any impairment in its supply or being able to properly metabolize
that glucose will lead to impairment in the function of those cells
and organs. Consequently, the tissues that have the highest
demand for proper blood flow and utilization are most susceptible to
the damage of impaired flow or metabolism, e.g., the kidneys,
heart, nerves, retina. A lack of blood flow and oxygen to the
tissues can also result in many infections, and often the only
treatment left is amputation. A high concentration of sugar can
also cause increased fatigue and weight gain. It does not kill
instantly, but causes long-term, permanent damage over many
years with lethal complications. That is why we often take a lax
attitude: slow and gradual—but certain and fatal.
What Related Complications Can Result From Diabetes?
Diabetes is not only the leading cause of kidney failure, but it is also
the leading cause of blindness, particularly among Americans
between the ages of 25 and 70. It also increases the chance of
having and dying from cardiovascular disease and stroke. The
probability of dying from stroke and cardiovascular disease is
increased by 400% in people with diabetes, and 2 out of 3 people
with diabetes die from heart disease and stroke.
Diabetes also damages the nervous system. Approximately 60%70% of diabetics have some form of nervous system damage. This
is especially a concern for diabetic males because they usually have
trouble functioning sexually. Erections involve blood flow and
nerves. Because diabetes causes nerve damage and affects blood
flow, many males struggle with sexual dysfunction. The first
question doctors ask when a patient complains of erectile
dysfunction is, “Do you have diabetes?” According to statistics,
more than half of sexual dysfunctions among males come from
In addition, diabetes is a major risk factor for heart attacks and
amputations. Sixty percent of amputations in the U.S. occur among
people with diabetes. This means that each year, 82,000
amputations are performed on people with diabetes.
What Is The Relationship Between Diabetes And Obesity?
Diabetes basically involves an inherent metabolism problem.
Because of the inability to absorb and process blood sugar in the
muscles, the muscles are constantly experiencing malnutrition.
Insulin that has been produced may not be efficiently used. Coupled
with lack of exercise, excess glucose eventually becomes fat. We
also know that this abnormal blood sugar metabolism affects
appetite. All of these lead to weight problems.
Between 70%-80% of people with obesity have diabetes. Likewise,
70%-80% of diabetics have difficulty controlling their weight.
I Don't Have Diabetes, Why Should I Be Concerned?
Diabetes is the “silent killer”. Often people who have diabetes do
not know it because they cannot feel it. People must take a direct
measurement of their blood glucose levels to know if they have
diabetes. Even more alarming, when a person is diagnosed with
diabetes, the actual development of the disease actually started on
the average of seven years prior. Once the active symptoms and
complications are observed, diabetes has already entered the later
stages. Early detection is good, but prevention is even better.
A yearly blood test is essential, even if you feel healthy.
What Is Pre-Diabetes?
Pre-diabetes is when a person has a higher than normal blood
glucose levels (hyperglycemic) but the level is not high
enough to be diagnosed as diabetic or they are unable to
secrete enough extra insulin in response to a glucose challenge.
This is a cause for concern, especially when 16 million people in the
U.S have “Pre-diabetes”. At this point, long term damage to the
body is already occurring and often leads to Type II diabetes. If the
blood glucose is controlled at an early stage, the
development into Type II diabetes can be prevented.
Often, diabetes is referred to as the “Silent Killer” due to the
unobvious symptoms of diabetes. People who have diabetes or are
pre-diabetic initially do not feel pain or feel any symptoms. It is
only when the diabetes has reached a serious stage when all the
complications, pain and symptoms surface.
As previously mentioned, according to statistics, once a person is
diagnosed as diabetic, it is likely that the onset of the diabetes
actually started seven years ago. On average, every 10 years
afterward, there is a rise in blood sugar of 100 milligrams per
deciliter. Diabetes is a progressive disease.
How Does Diabetes Affect Different Age Groups?
Approximately half of all diabetes cases occur in people older than
55 years of age and 40% of individuals over the age of 60 have
impaired glucose tolerance. This means that the elderly are at
high risk because the prevalence of diabetes increases with
age, especially the risk of Type II diabetes. One in four
individuals over the age of 60 has Type II diabetes. A main
contributing factor to developing Type II diabetes is declining
physical and metabolic activity, which comes with age. Also,
reduced mitochondrial activity in muscle cells, which progresses
with age, is a serious concern for seniors because it is a major
cause for insulin resistance.
There is also an increasing trend of diabetes in younger age
groups. From 1990 to 1998, the incidence of diabetes in 30-39 year
olds jumped by 76%. This increasing trend also includes children.
Today, 30% of pediatric patients in the U.S are Type II diabetic.
Because diabetes is not regularly screened in children, many
children go undiagnosed. This is especially dangerous because
diabetes is a progressive disease. Once diagnosed, there is an
almost unavoidable potential for it to escalate. Therefore, it is
important to control it early on, especially in children.
As mentioned previously, Type II diabetes is also known as Adult
Onset Diabetes. However, with recent statistics concerning the rise
of Type II diabetes in children, Adult Onset Diabetes becomes a
The rise in diabetic children is cause for alarm because diabetes
progresses over time. As a person ages, their diabetes continues to
worsen. Also, the use of pharmaceutical drugs just adds to the
problem. Diabetic pharmaceutical drugs seem to lose their
effectiveness over time, which forces the diabetic to increase the
dosage for the same results. So we can predict that when a diabetic
child becomes 20 or 30 years old, he will face an advanced stage of
diabetes where oral drugs will not work and insulin will be required.
The alarming increase of diabetes in children is parallel to
the rise of obesity in America's children. Sedentary lifestyle,
unhealthy eating habits and various other factors have contributed
to this threat to children's health. In fact, it has been estimated that
30% of 6-19 year olds are overweight. Furthermore, approximately
70% of obese adolescents are likely to become obese adults.
Often people say that children can outgrow their diabetes with diet
and exercise. This may be possible in a small number, but in the
vast majority it is wrong. Diabetes is a progressive disease and will
only worsen over time.
What Are The Dangers Of Depending On Pharmaceutical
Here is what many people do not know, what many doctors do not
emphasize and what everyone should be aware of: all
pharmaceutical drugs involve major risk .
Of course, these drugs are valuable for their ability to work
effectively and efficiently. For example, for diabetics,
pharmaceutical drugs are tremendously helpful in controlling blood
glucose. However, they work over a relatively short period of time.
So they are effective temporarily, but only temporarily. Over
time, they lose their effectiveness. So in 10 years, diabetics are
forced to increase their dosage of the same drug for the same
result. In another few years, even increasing the dosage will no
longer be effective.
Another danger of pharmaceutical drugs is the negative side
effects that develop from using and depending on these drugs.
Liver failure, kidney failure, damage to the brain and heart are just
some of the related consequences of pharmaceutical drugs. For
example, a significant portion of all kidney failures in diabetes are
actually due to diabetic drugs—not the disease itself. Facing such
dangers, it is impossible to tell which is worse: the disease or the
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cure disease, replace prescription medication, or supersede sound medical