Wortschatzuebung der 25

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1. Ein Mann, der im Krankenhaus arbeitet ist ___________________________.
2. Im Notfall, soll man ________________________________________________.
3. Wenn man die Grippe hat, dann hat man
________________________________________________________________________________.
4. In der Apotheke kann man ______________________________ kaufen.
5. Wenn man ins Krankenhaus geht, soll man einen Ausweis (ID) und eine
_____________________________________________________ dabei (with you) haben.
6. Eine Frau, die im Krankenhaus arbeitet ist _______________________________.
7. Mann kommt ins Krankenhaus in einem _________________________________.
8. Wenn es ein Notfall gibt, dann sagt man ,,______________________________!”
9. Einige (some) Beinteile sind ____________________________, __________________________,
und ________________________.
10. Einige Armteile sind ____________________________, __________________________, und
____________________________________.
Neue woerter fuer diese woche
Du siehst schlecht/schrecklich aus
Was ist los?
Was ist passiert?
Eine Allergie gegen etwas haben
Die Spritze
Die untersuchung
Sich verbrennen
Sich verletzen
Sich wehtun
Die Operation
Der Chirurg
Untersuchung
Ausrutschen
Fallen
der Gips
Sich _____ brechen
Accusative reflexive pronouns
http://www.nthuleen.com/teach/grammar/reflexexpl.html
Match the pronoun to its accusative reflexive counterpart.
Ich
Du
Dich
sie/er
Uns
wir
euch
ihr
mich
Sie
sich
Fill in the correct accusative reflexive pronoun.
1. Ich habe _______________ verletzt.
2. Du hast ________________ verletzt.
3. Er hat _________________ weh getan.
4. Wir haben _____________ verletzt.
5. Ihr habt ________________ weh getan.
6. Frau Christmas, Sie haben ________________ verletzt.
7. Hast du ___________________ verbrannt?
8. Ja, ich habe _________________ verbrannt.
9. Wir haben _____________________ nicht weh getan.
10. Ihr habt ______________________ verbrannt.
Fill in the correct vocab word from today.
1. Ach nein! Ich habe mir den Arm gebrochen. Jetzt habe ich einen
_____________________.
2. Ich war beim Kochen, und habe das kochende Wasser beruehrt. Ich habe
mich _______________________________.
3. “zu Hilfe!!” “Was ist _____________________________?”
4. Ich darf keine Erdnusse essen. Ich habe eine ______________________ gegen
Erdnusse.
5. Ich muss eine ___________________________ gegen die Grippe bekommen.
(bekommen=to get)
6. Ich habe mich________________________________________!
7. Bist du krank? Hast du nicht geschlafen? Du
______________________________________!
Schreib es auf Deutsch.
1. We got hurt. (=we hurt ourselves.)
2. You burned yourself.
3. I hurt myself.
4. They hurt themselves.
5. You all hurt yourselves.
German Reflexive Verbs (2)
Reflexive Pronouns
Accusative and Dative Reflexive Pronouns
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Sentences
Reflexive 1 > Reflexive Pronouns > Sample
Below is a chart listing the accusative and dative reflexive pronouns
in German. In the second chart below, we list sample reflexive verbs
and sentences to illustrate how German uses the reflexive. Also see
Lesson 15 - Part 3 of German for Beginners for more examples of the
dative reflexive.
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The Reflexive Pronouns in German
Accusative - Dative
Nom.
Akkusativ
Dativ
ich
mich (myself)
mir (myself)
du
dich (yourself)
dir (yourself)
ihr
euch (yourselves)
euch (yourselves)
wir
uns (ourselves)
uns (ourselves)
er
sich
sich
sie
(himself/herself/itself)
(himself/herself/itself)
Sie
sich
sich
sie
(yourself/themselves)
(yourself/themselves)
es
The chart above is organized so that the only two reflexive forms that are different in
the dative reflexive are shown in the two top rows. Only dir and mir differ from
their accusative forms. All of the sich forms are also shown together. This way you
can see that you really don't need to learn as many unique reflexive forms as you
might have thought.
See the chart below for some important reflexive verbs in German and English. Note
the examples that contrast the reflexive and non-reflexive forms of the same verb,
with their different meanings.
Sample Reflexive Verbs
*Verbs that are always or usually reflexive in German
sich annehmen
to look after/take care of
annehmen (non-refl.)
to assume
sich anziehen
to get dressed
anziehen (non-refl.)
to wear
sich ärgern
to be angry, upset
sich baden
to bathe, take a bath
baden (non-refl.)
to swim, go swimming
sich bedienen
to serve yourself
sich beeilen*
to hurry, be in a rush
sich befinden*
to be located, find oneself (somewhere)
sich bewegen
to move
sich duschen*
to shower, take a shower
sich eignen*
to be suited, suitable
sich entscheiden
to decide, make up one's mind
sich erholen*
to recover, get better
sich erinnern
to remember
erinnern (non-refl.)
to remind
sich erkälten*
to catch cold
sich freuen*
to be glad
sich gewöhnen an*
to get used to
sich handeln um
to be about
handeln (non-refl.)
to act, trade, deal
sich interessieren für
to be interested in
sich rasieren*
to shave
sich setzen
to sit down
setzen (non-refl.)
to put, place
sich waschen
to wash (oneself)
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS AND VERBS
A situation is reflexive when the subject and the object of the
action are the same:
Ich wasche meinen Hund.
Subject (ich) and object (meinen
Hund) are different ==> not reflexive.
Ich wasche mich.
Subject (ich) and object (mich) are the same
==> reflexive.
To indicate this, reflexive pronouns are used. There are reflexive
pronouns in the accusative case and the dative case.
REFLEXIVE
PRONOUNS
ACCUSATIV
CASE ==> NOMINATIVE
DATIVE
E
ich
mich mir
SINGULA
du
dich dir
R
er/sie/es
sich
wir
uns
PLURAL ihr
euch
sie/Sie
sich
Note that they are different in the first and second person singular
only--however, these forms are used quite often.
.
When are the accusative forms used, and when the dative forms?
Accusative forms are used when the reflexive object is
direct:
Ich wasche mich.
"mich" is the direct object of the
action.
Dative forms are used when the reflexive object is indirect:
Ich
wasche mir das Gesicht.
"mir" is the indirect object
(beneficiary) of the action and thus in the dative case ("das
Gesicht" is the direct object of the action).
Since many situations use an accusative object before they use a
dative object, the accusative form of the relative pronoun can be
considered something of a `default'. Disregard prepositional
objects (even if in the accusative case). = Ich interessiere mich
für Musik.
Dative forms are also used after adverbs such as nichts (nothing),
etwas (something), viel (much), wenig (a little) (indefinite
quantities), as well as dependent clauses with "daß". These
function as direct objects.
Ich habe mir etwas zu Essen gekauft.
Ich denke mir, daß er ein Dummkopf ist.
Word Order
Normally, the reflexive pronoun follows as third
element after either the verb (in statements) or the subject (in
questions):
Sie hat sich weh getan.
Hast du dir weh getan?
Imperatives
The reflexive pronoun is required in imperatives:
=
Beruhigt euch! (Calm down!)
= Benimm dich!
(Behave!)
Remember that the basic version of this phrase would
be: "Du benimmst dich". The reflexive pronoun dich goes with du;
while the conjugation ending (-st) and the personal pronoun are
dropped, the reflexive pronoun is retained! Also note the vowel
change in this example; it needs to be carried out as usual.
Verbs
Here is a list of select so-called "reflexive verbs".
some may or may not be reflexive, depending on the situation
(they are listed below with "sich" in parentheses, e.g.
"waschen"):
= Er zieht sich um. He changes (clothes).
= Er
zieht seinen Sohn um. He changes his son's clothes.
some are always reflexive and use a given case regardless of the
above (though in most cases it follows that pattern).
"+A" or "+D" below apply to the case of the object after the
preposition, NOT to the case of the reflexive pronoun:
=
Elfriede erinnert sich nicht an ihren ersten Kuß.
(sich
erinnern an + A: "an ihren ersten Kuß";
Elfriede remembers
her first kiss.)
These verbs are somewhat common and you should at least be
familiar with them (i.e. be able to recognize them and work with
them). Hint: use the accusative as a `default' (this works often--but
not necessarily always!).
Mit AKKUSATIV
(sich) amüsieren
sich aufregen (über +A)
sich beeilen
sich befinden
to amuse oneself
to get angry (about)
to be in a hurry
to be present
sich beklagen
sich benehmen
sich entscheiden
(sich) entschuldigen
sich ereignen
sich erholen
sich erinnern (an +A)
sich erkälten
sich freuen auf +A
sich freuen (über +A)
sich fürchten vor +D
(sich) gewöhnen an +A
sich interessieren für
+A
sich kümmern um +A
(sich) stellen
sich umsehen
(sich) umziehen
(sich) unterhalten
sich verspäten
sich vor*stellen
sich wundern (über +A)
sich wenden an +A
to complain
to behave
to decide
to apologize
to take place, occur, happen
to recuperate
to remember (something)
to catch a cold
to look forward to
to be happy (about)
to be afraid of
to get used to
to be interested in
to take care of
to turn oneself in (to the
police)
to look around
to change (clothes)
to converse, talk, entertain
to be late
to introduce onself
to wonder, be surprised
(about)
to turn to
Mit AKKUSATIV ODER DATIV
sich legen
to lay down
(sich) rasieren
to shave
(sich) setzen
to sit down
(sich) verletzen
to hurt (oneself)
(sich) waschen
to wash (oneself)
Mit DATIV
sich etwas einbilden
to pretend
sich vorstellen (+A)
to imagine
sich zu schade sein für to have too much selfrespect
+A
(sich) weh tun
for
to hurt (oneself)
ÜBUNGEN
If you cannot enter special characters directly:
* Cut & Paste the appropriate character from here: ß - Ä - ä - Ö - ö - Ü - ü
* Or, for the "ß" use the capital letter "B" (or an "sz"), for umlauts use these transc
etc.
A. Was ist die richtige Form?
1. Wir amüsieren jedes Wochenende.
2. Ich rege immer so auf,
wenn ich Fußballspiele sehe.
3. Sie sollten jeden Morgen
bewegen, das ist gesund.
4. Erinnerst du noch an Alfred?
5. Paß
auf, oder du wirst erkälten!
6. Anna freut schon auf die
Ferien.
7. Jeden Morgen rasiere ich .
8. Ihr habt schon wieder
verspätet!
9. Ich habe beim Fußballspielen den Fuß verletzt.
10.
Zieh schon an!
B. Bilden Sie Sätze (in Präsens). Vergessen Sie nicht: DATIV,
AKKUSATIV...?
1. Max / sich verspäten / jeden Tag
2. ich / sich wundern / über
diese Übung
3. sich setzen / auf den Stuhl / bitte / ! [There are
three ways to do this one].
4. du / sich entschuldigen / bei
deiner Freundin
5. Julia / sich interessieren / für modische
Kleider
6. sich vorstellen / ich / ein schönes Leben
C. Übersetzen Sie. Vorsicht, das ist ein bißchen schwierig!
1. Rolf is not afraid of dogs.
2. We are interested in
music.
3. Cornelia has to get used to her new car.
4. Can you
imagine a trip to Germany?
5. I have to change [clothes] before
I go.
6. Behave! [There are three possibilities!]
Dative Reflexive
In this section we examine the dative reflexive, and particularly how
it's used with the vocabulary in this lesson. Since reflexive verb forms
are used frequently in German and have very practical, everyday
applications, you need to learn them. (Also see Reflexive Verbs and
the other parts of this lesson.) Note that only two pronouns (ich and
du) show any difference from the accusative reflexive forms in the
dative reflexive. But since those two pronouns are very often used in
the dative reflexive, it is important to know them.
Dativ/der Wemfall
The Dative Reflexive
Nom.
Accusative
Dative
pronoun
pronoun
pronoun
ich
mich (myself)
mir (myself)
du
dich (yourself)
dir (yourself)
wir
uns (ourselves)
uns (ourselves)
ihr
euch (yourselves)
euch (yourselves)
er
sie
es
sich
(himself/herself/itself)
sich
(himself/herself/itself)
Sie
sich
sich
sie
(yourself/themselves)
(yourself/themselves)
When talking about combing or washing your hair, washing your face
or brushing your teeth in German, you use the dative reflexive forms
shown above. German has two reflexive forms, accusative and dative.
If you just say, "I'm washing myself." (nothing specific) then you use
the "normal" accusative reflexive: "Ich wasche mich." But if you are
washing your hair, instead of expressing that as English would ("my
hair" = "meine Haare"), German uses the reflexive: "Ich wasche mir
die Haare." (lit., "I wash myself the hair." - no possessive "my") Look
at the examples below and observe how the dative reflexive
functions with different pronouns (du/dir, wir/uns, etc.).
Dative Reflexive
Sample sentences
I'm washing my hands.
Ich wasche mir die Hände.
I'm combing my hair.
Ich kämme mir die Haare.
He's washing his hands.
Er wäscht sich die Hände.
Are you washing your hands?
Wäscht du dir die Hände?
We're brushing our teeth.
Wir putzen uns die Zähne.
I'm washing my face.
Ich wasche mir das Gesicht.
German uses the dative reflexive to express the English possessive forms with pers
toiletry verbs (comb, wash, brush, etc.). Note that only the forms dir and mir are diffe
from the accusative reflexive forms (dich, mich). Contrast the sentences above with th
accusative reflexive forms below:
I'm washing myself.
Are you washing yourself?
Ich wasche mich.
Wäscht du dich?
I'm shaving (myself).
He's shaving (himself).
Ich rasiere mich.
Er rasiert sich.
I'm getting dressed.
He's getting dressed.
Ich ziehe mich an.
Er zieht sich an.
Note that with the accusative reflexive the reflexive pronoun is the only object. (The E
equivalent may not even be reflexive, i.e., there may be NO "yourself" or "myself" in t
English sentence – as in "I'm shaving.") In accusative reflexive sentences the reflexive
pronoun itself is the direct object, while in dative reflexive sentences something else is
direct object (hand, hair, face, etc.) The German accusative reflexive forms are cove
more detail in the lesson on German Reflexive Verbs.
Reflexive sentences can be in any tense. Reflexive verbs are
conjugated just like any other German verb. (See our German Verbs
page for more.) Here are a few examples:
Dative Reflexive
Sentences in Various Tenses
I washed my hands. (past)
Ich habe mir die Hände gewaschen
I'll comb my hair. (future)
Ich werde mir die Haare kämmen.
Did you wash your hands? (past)
Hast du dir die Hände gewaschen?
Handout: Reflexivverben
Reflexive verbs in German are really quite simple. Like many other languages,
German has some verbs that require a reflexive pronoun to complete a sentence.
“Reflexive” simply means that the pronoun refers back to the subject of the
sentence. We do this in English, too, although German has many more reflexive
verbs than English. Compare the following:
Ich wasche das Auto.
Ich wasche mich.
NOT REFLEXIV
REFLEXIVE:
I’
There are many verbs in German that require a reflexive pronoun where their
English counterparts do not. Examine the following:
Ich
Ich
Ich
Ich
ziehe mich an.
schminke mich.
rasiere mich.
entspanne mich.
These verbs do not form complete sentences without an object -- for our
purposes, the reflexive pronoun. “Ich ziehe an” does not make any sense in
German, because it’s not stated WHAT you’re putting clothes onto.
Many reflexive verbs in German take accusative reflexive pronouns. Quite simply,
these pronouns function as direct objects in the sentence. What am I washing? -Myself, so: Ich wasche mich. If the action of the verb reflects directly back to the
subject, then the reflexive pronoun will be accusative.
Some reflexive verbs, though, require a dative reflexive pronoun. These pronouns
function as indirect objects, because there is some other element in the sentence
that is the direct object. Most often, the direct object is a body part or piece of
clothing that belongs to the subject. Compare the following:
I’m
I’m
I’m
I’m
getting
putting
shaving
relaxing
Ich ziehe mich an.
Ich ziehe mir einen Mantel an.
ACCUSATIVE:
Ich wasche mich.
Ich wasche mir die Hände.
ACCUSATIVE:
Rasierst du dich?
Rasierst du dir die Beine?
ACCUSATIVE:
DATIVE:
DATIVE:
DATIVE:
When you’re trying to decide whether to use an accusative or dative reflexive
pronoun, look at the sentence and determine if there is another element (such as
a body part) that is acting as the direct object. If so, then the reflexive pronoun
will be dative (the indirect object). Otherwise, if there is no other element in the
sentence, the reflexive pronoun must be accusative.
The following is a chart of the accusative and dative reflexive pronouns in
German. Notice that for the most part, these pronouns are the same as the object
pronouns (dich, uns, etc.). Only the third-person forms (sich) are new to you. Also
notice that the only differences between dative and accusative forms are in the
first (mich-mir) and second (du-dir) singular persons.
NOM
AKK
DAT
ich..........mich......... mir
.
.
du.......... dich..........dir
.
.
er...........sich.......... sich
.
.
sie.......... sich.......... sich
.
.
es...........sich.......... sich
.
.
NOM
AKK
DAT
wir.......... uns............ uns
..
..
ihr........... euch........... euch
.
.
sie........... sich............ sich
.
.
Sie........... sich............ sich
.
.
Usage notes:
Body parts do not take a possessive adjective. Unlike English, where we say “I’m
washing MY hands”, when a reflexive pronoun is used in German, it already
I’m
I’m
Are
indicates to whom the body parts belong, so there is no possessive adjective used.
It is not only redundant but also wrong to use a possessive here.
Ich wasche mir die Hände.
Ich putze mir die Zähne.
I’m washing
I’m brushin
Direct objects with reflexive pronouns. Although the general rule-of-thumb is that
reflexive pronouns are dative when a body part or article of clothing is specified,
please be aware that there are other types of nouns that can function as direct
objects, thus making the reflexive pronoun dative. For example:
Ich koche mir Kaffee.
Ich sehe mir einen Film an.
Word order:
In statements, the reflexive pronoun should occur directly after the conjugated
verb, or as close to the subject as possible (while maintaining verb-second word
order).
Ich wasche mir jeden Tag die Haare.
Jeden Tag wasche ich mir die Haare.
Ich habe mir heute die Haare gewaschen.
Ich kann mir heute die Haare nicht waschen.
In questions, the same rule applies: the reflexive pronoun stays as close to the
subject as possible, allowing for correct verb placement.
Putzt du dir jetzt die Zähne?
Soll ich mir die Zähne putzen?
Hast du dir die Zähne geputzt?
When proper names are used in a sentence, it is possible to move the reflexive
pronoun even further forward in the sentence than normal. However, standard
word order is also possible, so if in doubt, simply keep the reflexive pronoun in its
normal position.
I’m making
I’m watchin
Ärgert Karl sich?
Ärgert sich Karl?
(normal pos
(alternate,
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