Echo GCSE Rot PB Grammar_FINAL.indd

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Grammatik
Joining up sentences
Bronze
Co-ordinating conjunctions
Conjunctions are small words which join together two
sentences or parts of sentences to form longer sentences.
Here are four common ones in German:
aber
but
denn
as / because
oder
or
und
and
Ich finde Rap-Musik schrecklich, aber Trance ist ganz
gut.
I find rap music awful but trance is quite good.
They do not affect the order of sentences and are very
easy to use. Notice that you have to put a comma before
aber but not before und.
3 Subordinating clauses; verb comma verb.
a If a sentence begins with a subordinating conjunction the verb is kicked to the end of the clause.
Man fährt im Auto.  Wenn man im Auto fährt ...
You drive in the car.  When you drive in the car ...
b This whole clause becomes the first idea in the sentence, so the verb of the main clause needs to come next, because
the main verb in a sentence should be in second position. Or just remember, verb – comma – verb.
Man fährt im Auto. Man kann im Radio Musik hören.
Wenn man im Auto fährt, KANN man im Radio Musik hören.
Silver
now in 1st position
1 These conjunctions change word order in German. If a sentence or a clause begins with a subordinating conjunction it
‘kicks’ the verb to the end of the clause. The following conjunctions are ‘kicking conjunctions’.
als
when (one occasion, past tense)
ob
whether
although
bevor
before
obwohl
bis
until
während while
da
because / since
was
what
so that
wie
how
damit
dass
that
weil
because
when / if (present / future)
nachdem after
wenn
wo
where
Ich arbeite als Lehrer. Ich mag Kinder.
ich MAG Kinder.
WEIL
Ich arbeite als Lehrer, weil ich Kinder mag. I work as a teacher because I like children.
Ich will heiraten. Ich finde eine Partnerin.
Ich will heiraten,
SOBALD
any other information
F
When you drive in the car you can listen to music on the radio.
Subordinating conjunctions
Ich arbeite als Lehrer,
2
Gold
um ... zu
Relative pronouns
This phrase means in order to. In German we always need
to use this construction even though we often leave it out in
English. For example, we say “we will use new technologies
to solve problems” when we mean “we will use new
technologies in order to solve problems”.
Relative pronouns are words which introduce a new clause
that refers back to a noun in the previous part of the
sentence. In English they are often translated as ‘who’,
‘which’ or ‘that’. Notice that relative pronouns send the verb
to the end of the sentence.
Wir werden neue Technologien benutzen, um Probleme
zu lösen.
We will use new technologies in order to solve problems.
Ich habe einen Bruder. Der Bruder heißt Bart. 
Ich habe einen Bruder, der Bart heißt.
I have a brother who is called Bart.
There is always a comma before um. The verb in the second
half of the sentence is always in the infinitive and it always
goes at the end of the sentence.
Ich habe zwei Schwestern. Die Schwestern heißen Maggie
und Lisa. 
Ich habe zwei Schwestern, die Maggie und Lisa heißen.
I have two sisters who are called Maggie and Lisa.
ohne zu ...
ich finde eine Partnerin.
Ich will heiraten, sobald ich eine Partnerin finde.
I want to marry as soon as I find a partner
2 In more complex sentences the word order rule remains the same. If there are two verbs (i.e. modals, perfect tense,
future), the modal verb or part of haben / sein / werden comes at the very end.
This is another useful construction which is used with the
infinitive and means without doing something.
Relative pronouns
Er kam ins Zimmer, ohne zu klopfen.
He came into the room without knocking.
nom
masc
der
fem
die
neut
das
plural
die
2
F
2
F
Ich möchte nach Ungarn fahren. Man kann da Tennis spielen.
Ich möchte nach Ungarn fahren,
WEIL
man KANN da Tennis spielen.
Ich möchte nach Ungarn fahren, weil man da Tennis spielen kann.
216 zweihundertsechzehn
I want to go to Hungary because you can
play tennis there.
zweihundertsiebzehn 217
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