Here are the English subject pronouns: I you he she it

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Deutsch II: Final Exam Grammar Review—December 2011
Pronomen
English has only 7 subject pronouns, whereas German has 9. Why is that? ____________________
Here are the English subject pronouns:
I
you
he
she
it
(y’all)
we
they
you (formal)
What are their German equivalents? _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
Just as in English these pronouns are used to take the place of a noun.
Nomen
We have learned that, unlike English, all nouns in German are ____________________ and preceded by an article. There are three
different articles, all of which mean _____. They are _____, which is called masculine, _____, which is feminine, and _____, which
is neuter. Whenever you learn a new noun, you must also memorize its article, since there is no definite rule about which article goes
with which word. There is, however, a saying that helps you figure out the gender of some nouns. How does it go?
Ends in _____, gender _____. Ends in _____, gender _____. ______________ and ______________ are _____.
(All plural nouns are _____!)
Can you guess the genders of the following words?
_____ Zunge
_____ Notizbuch
_____ Professor
_____ Nachbarland
_____ Haar
_____ Schreiber
_____ Krankenschwester
_____ Handtasche
_____ Opas
_____ Kassette
_____ Kind
_____ Mutter
In order to avoid being redundant, you will sometimes need to replace a noun with a pronoun. For each of the following sentences,
how would substitute a pronoun to express, “It is black.”
Der Kuli ist schwarz.
Die Katze ist schwarz.
____ ist schwarz.
_____ ist schwarz
How would you also say, “They are black.”
Die Kulis sind schwarz.
_____ sind schwarz.
Artikel
Das Buch ist schwarz.
_____ ist schwarz
One of the most difficult concepts, which we mastered in German I, was that one of the articles has to be changed if its noun is a direct
object. That article is _____ which changes to _____. This year we learned that all of the articles change when they are indirect
objects.
Ein/Kein/Mein/Dein
We learned that there are several words for the and that each noun is assigned a specific one. There are also various forms for a or an.
These are determined by the gender of the noun.
Der Tisch ist groß.
Ein Tisch ist groß.
Die Fahne ist rot und weiß. Eine Fahne ist rot und weiß.
Das Auto ist blau.
Ein Auto ist blau.
Ich bringe den Tisch.
Ich bringe einen Tisch.
You can not use ein with plural nouns. You can, however, use keine, meine or deine.
Die Klassen sind interessant. Meine Klassen sind interessant.
Can you fill in the correct ein forms for the following nouns?
1. _____ Lehrer korregiert _____ Hausaufgaben.
2. _____ Junge und _____ Madchen gehen in _____ Schule.
3. _____ Eltern spielen _____ Tuba.
4. _____ Frau besucht _____ Mann.
5. Kennt _____ Lehrerin _____ Taxifahrer?
6. Ich habe _____ Bleistift, _____ Papier, _____ Kuli und _____ Buch.
Nominative, Akkusativ und Dativ:
Since the verb is the only word in a sentence that has a set position, the articles play an important role. We
learned that, in order to clarify the difference between subjects and objects in a sentence, articles are sometimes
changed from their dictionary forms. Fortunately, the direct and indirect objects are in the same order in
German sentences as in English.
Using the following elements, please write correct sentences. Don’t forget to conjugate, capitalize and change
the articles where appropriate.
1. wir / geben / Hans / das Buch / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
2. meine Mutter / kaufen / uns / eine Torte / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
3. ich / zeigen / dir / der Dom / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Klaus / geben / mir / der Stuhl / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Axel und Manfred / kaufen / sich / die Bonbons / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
Regulare Verben im Präsens
Verbs are words which show action in a sentence. In German all verbs end in either _____ or _____. Before
you can use them in a sentence, you must conjugate them. That means that you change them so that they match
the subject. This simple three-step process consists of:
1. Taking off the ______________________.
2. Writing down the ____________________ after each subject pronoun.
3. Adding the _________________________.
Let’s see if you can apply the rules to the following verbs.
machen
schreiben
spielen
kommen
tun
-ich
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-du
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-ihr
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
____________
_________
______
Some verbs, however, need special attention. They need to add or delete a letter in order to make pronunciation
easier. Can you conjugate these verbs?
wandern
arbeiten
finden
heissen
tanzen
-ich
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-du
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-ihr
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
____________
_________
______
Which form did you have to change for wandern? __________
What did you have to add to arbeiten and finden? __________
What did you leave off of heissen and tanzen?
__________
Irregulare Verben
Though most verbs are regular, there are some verbs which have to be memorize. Fortunately there are very
few of these. Three, however, are:
sein- ___ ___
haben- ___ _______
werden-___ _______
-ich
__________
__________
__________
-du
__________
__________
__________
-er,sie,es
__________
__________
__________
-ihr
__________
__________
__________
-wir,sie,Sie __________
__________
__________
The rest of the irregular verbs have a easy pattern for conjugation. Do you know how to conjugate the following
irregular verbs?
fahren
laufen
sprechen
essen
sehen
lesen
-ich
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
*du
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
*er,sie,es
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
-ihr
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
-wir,sie,Sie __________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
What are the only two conjugations that differ from the way you do a regular verb? _____ and _____
What did you change about these forms for fahren and laufen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
for sprechen and essen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
for sehen and lesen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
Modal Verben
Modal verbs express how one ______ about an action. They do not express the action itself; therefore, they
must accompany an action verb. These verbs have a different way of conjugating.
können
müssen
wollen
möchten
-ich
____________
____________
____________
_________
-du
____________
____________
____________
_________
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
____________
_________
-ihr
____________
____________
____________
_________
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
____________
_________
Sollen, dürfen, and mögen are also modal verbs.
When there is more than one verb in a sentence, they cannot both be in the coveted second position. One must
go to the end of the sentence, my friend. Can you rewrite these sentences to include the modal verbs?
Remember the C-clamp!
Ich spiele Tennis. (können)
_____________________________________________
Gehst du ins Kino? (wollen)
_____________________________________________
Trennbare Verben
There are some verbs that are made up of two parts, a prefix and the verb itself. In English the equivalents of
these verbs tend to have prepositions. When we conjugate these, they split in half and the prefix goes on the
end of the sentence.
(einkaufen) Ich __________ bei Kroger’s _____.
(mitkommen) __________ du morgen _____?
(aufräumen) Wir __________ das Zimmer _____.
(aufmachen) Ihr sollt das Paket _______________.
Wortstellung
In addition to learning lots of vocabulary and memorizing the articles, we also learned how to put the
vocabulary into sentences. When we do that, what is the normal order
for a statement? ______ then _______
for a question? ______ then _______
Underline the verbs in the following exercise, then make sentences or questions with the elements?
1. besuchen / ich / meine Oma / . /
______________________________________________
2. Hausaufgaben / machen / wir / . /
______________________________________________
3. du / bringen / die Musik / ? /
______________________________________________
4. arbeiten / am Wochenende / er / ? /
______________________________________________
When we have verbs with separable prefixes, we remove the prefix and place it at the end of the sentence
before conjugating the verb.
5. wir / einkaufen / morgen / . /
___________________________________
6. mitkommen / heute / du / ? /
___________________________________
Adjektiven und Adverbien: Komparativ und Superlativ
In order to compare attributes of two or more things, we use the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. In English this
sometimes means that we add “more” or “the most” in front of the adjective. This is never the case in German.
For comparative form the formula is:
adjective + _____________ + ________________________
For superlative form the formula is: _____ + adjective + _____________+ ________________________
Komparativ
Superlative
nett
warm
gut
We have also covered several different culture and vocabulary topics. Be sure to also review the vocab related to the poem, as it will
play a major role. Know the nouns and their articles!
Questions for Frau Dieckman? Email [email protected]
Perfekt
Once we mastered all of those basic concepts, we learned how to communicate in the conversational past tense.
This form requires a helping verb and a past participle. The formula for making this tense with weak verbs is:
__________ + _ _ + ________ + _
This formula is slightly altered if the verb has an inseparable prefix, a separable prefix or if it is French! Can
you write the following sentences in the past tense?
1. Ich spiele Tennis
Ich __________ Tennis ____________________.
2. Wir tanzen nicht gern.
_____________________________________________________
3. Kaufst du ein?
_____________________________________________________
4. Ihr besucht die Oma.
_____________________________________________________
5. Vati repariert mein Fahrrad.
_____________________________________________________
For strong verbs, you had to determine which helping verb to use and had to memorize the past participle.
1. Die Kinder essen kein Gemüse. _____________________________________________________
2. Trinkst du Milch?
_____________________________________________________
3. Fritz und ich schlafen im Park.
_____________________________________________________
4. Ingo geht nach Hause.
_____________________________________________________
5. Ich bin 14 Jahre alt.
_____________________________________________________
When would you use sein as the helping verb? ______________________________________________
We have also covered several different vocabulary topics. Be sure to review the vocab related to the poem, as it
will play a major role. Know the nouns and their articles.
Questions for Frau Dieckman?????
Email [email protected]
Präteritum
As with English, there are ___ different ways to make past tense. The Imperfect (Präteritum) is the one word
form of the past tense. It is used for ________________ about past events, except when writing personal
letters. All of these are conjugated like modal verbs; however, there is only a formula for the weak verbs:
_______________ + _____ + modal conjugation
Can you write the following sentences in the imperfect tense?
1. Ich spiele Tennis
Ich _______________ Tennis.
2. Kaufst du ein?
_____________________________________________________
3. Vati repariert mein Fahrrad.
_____________________________________________________
4. Ihr besucht die Oma.
_____________________________________________________
5. Wir tanzen nicht gern.
_____________________________________________________
For strong verbs, you had to memorize the imperfect form and conjugated it like a modal verb.
1. Ich bin 14 Jahre alt.
_____________________________________________________
2. Trinkst du Milch?
_____________________________________________________
3. Ingo geht nach Hause.
_____________________________________________________
4. Fritz und du schlaft im Park.
_____________________________________________________
Die Kinder essen kein Gemüse.
_____________________________________________________
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