Reflexive Verben

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Final Exam Grammar Review Dezember 2012
Deutsch IV
Pronomen
English has only 7 subject pronouns, whereas German has 9. Why is that? ____________________
Here are the English subject pronouns:
I
you
he
she
it
(y’all)
we
they
you (formal)
What are their German equivalents? _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
Just as in English these pronouns are used to take the place of a noun.
Nomen
We have learned that, unlike English, all nouns in German are ____________________ and preceded by an article. There
are three different articles, all of which mean _____. They are _____, which is called masculine, _____, which is feminine,
and _____, which is neuter. Whenever you learn a new noun, you must also memorize its article, since there is no definite
rule about which article goes with which word. There is, however, a saying that helps you figure out the gender of some
nouns. How does it go?
Ends in _____, gender _____.
Ends in _____, gender _____.
_______________ and ______________ are _____.
(All plural nouns are _____!)
Can you guess the genders of the following words?
_____ Zunge
_____ Notizbuch
_____ Professor
_____ Haar
_____ Schreiber
_____ Krankenschwester
_____ Opas
_____ Kassette
_____ Kind
_____ Nachbarland
_____ Handtasche
_____ Mutter
In order to avoid being redundant, you will sometimes need to replace a noun with a pronoun. For each of the following
sentences, how would substitute a pronoun to express, “It is black.”
Der Kuli ist schwarz.
Die Katze ist schwarz.
____ ist schwarz.
_____ ist schwarz
How would you also say, “They are black.”
Die Kulis sind schwarz.
_____ sind schwarz.
Artikel
Das Buch ist schwarz.
_____ ist schwarz
One of the most difficult concepts, which we mastered, was that one of the articles has to be changed if its noun is a direct
object. That article is _____ which changes to _____. Can you fill in the correct articles for the following nouns?
1. _____ Lehrer korregiert _____ Hausaufgaben.
2. _____ Junge und _____ Madchen gehen in _____ Schule.
3. _____ Eltern spielen _____ Horn.
4. _____ Frau besucht _____ Mann.
5. Kennt _____ Lehrerin _____ Taxifahrer?
6. Ich habe _____ Bleistift, _____ Papier, _____ Kuli und _____ Buch.
Ein/Kein/Mein/Dein
We learned that there are several words for the and that each noun is assigned a specific one. There are also various forms
for a or an. These are determined by the gender of the noun.
Der Tisch ist groß.
Ein Tisch ist groß.
Die Fahne ist rot und weiß. Eine Fahne ist rot und weiß.
Das Auto ist blau.
Ein Auto ist blau.
Ich bringe den Tisch.
Ich bringe einen Tisch.
You can not use ein with plural nouns. You can, however, use keine, meine or deine.
Die Klassen sind interessant. Meine Klassen sind interessant.
Can you fill in the correct ein forms for the following nouns?
1. _____ Lehrer korregiert _____ Hausaufgaben.
2. _____ Junge und _____ Madchen gehen in _____ Schule.
3. _____ Eltern spielen _____ Horn.
4. _____ Frau besucht _____ Mann.
5. Kennt _____ Lehrerin _____ Taxifahrer?
6. Ich habe _____ Bleistift, _____ Papier, _____ Kuli und _____ Buch.
Reflexive Verben
We have already learned that, just as articles may change when a noun functions as a direct or indirect object, pronouns
change too. Now also learned that some verbs require the use of a special pronoun, a reflexive pronoun. Please complete the
following charts with the correct forms of the pronouns given.
Nominativ
Akkusativ
Dativ
ich
du
er
sie
es
wir
ihr
sie
Sie
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
Supply the correct reflexive form to complete each sentence. Pay attention to whether or not the sentence has a direct object.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Ich habe __________ erkältet.
Ich putze __________ die Zähne.
Hast du _____ mit dem Messer geschnitten?
Hast du __________ die Haare geschnitten?
Er hat __________ schon gewaschen.
Das Kind wäscht __________ die Hände.
7. Die Frau schminkt __________ vor dem
Spiegel.
8. Warum sollen wir __________ beeilen?
9. Habt ihr __________ gut amüsiert?
10. Die besten Schüler interessieren
__________ für Briefmarken.
Nominative, Akkusativ und Dativ:
Since the verb is the only word in a sentence that has a set position, the articles play an important role.
We learned that, in order to clarify the difference between subjects and objects in a sentence, articles are
sometimes changed from their dictionary forms. Fortunately, the direct and indirect objects are in the
same order in German sentences as in English.
Using the following elements, please write correct sentences. Don’t forget to conjugate, capitalize and
change the articles where appropriate.
1. wir / geben / die Frau / das Buch / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
2. meine Mutter / kaufen / die Kinder / eine Torte / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
3. ich / zeigen / mein Freund / der Dom / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Klaus / geben / die Eltern / der Tisch / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Axel und Manfred / kaufen / ein Kind / die Bonbons / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
Nominative, Akkusativ und Dativ:
Using the sentences that you just created, rewrite them changing all of the nouns to pronouns. Don’t
forget that the word order may change.
1. wir / geben / die Frau / das Buch / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
2. meine Mutter / kaufen / die Kinder / eine Torte / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
3. ich / zeigen / mein Freund / der Dom / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
4. Klaus / geben / die Eltern / der Tisch / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
5. Axel und Manfred / kaufen / ein Kind / die Bonbons / . /
_____________________________________________________________________
Adjektivendungen
Since articles and, therefore, gender is rather important in German grammar, several elements work
together to be sure that the gender of a noun is clear. This semester we have worked extensively with
adjectives. We learned some easy rules for determining what to put on adjectives when they come in
front of nouns. Those rules were:
When an adjective comes before a noun, it must have an ending.
Beispiele: Das ist das rote Auto.
Das Auto ist rot--.
If an article does not show the gender of the noun, the adjective must tell the gender of the noun.
When the article is present and does tell the gender, an –e is placed on the end of the adjective.
Beispiele: Das ist das rote Auto.
Ein rotes Auto steht da.
If the article changes from it original dictionary form, an –en is placed on the end of the
adjective.
Beispiele: Ich kenne den netten Mann
Er kommt mit dem roten Auto.
Apply those rules in order to provide the correct ending for each adjective. Your choices are –e, -en, -er,
-es, and --.
1. Wo ist der letzt__ Brief von Hans?
10. Es steht auf der nächst__ Seite.
2. Ich kaufe den klein__ Tisch.
11. München ist eine schön__ Stadt.
3. Er kommt mit dem nächst__ Bus.
12. Der Brief ist von meiner nett__ Oma.
4. Das ist ein klein__ Tisch.
13. Arm__ Frau Braun!
5. Der klein__ Tisch ist hübsch__.
14. Ich habe das neu__ Lied gelernt.
6. Sein jünger__ Bruder heißt Willi.
15. Du schläfst in dem klein__ Zimmer.
7. Hans schreibt einen lang__ Brief.
16. Ich kenne ein ander__ Mädchen.
8. Er geht zu einem gut__ Zahnarzt.
17. Er ist in einem groß__ Zimmer.
9. Wir kaufen diese braun__ Jacke.
18. Das Buch ist sehr interessant__.
Regulare Verben im Präsens
Verbs are words which show action in a sentence. In German all verbs end in either _____ or _____. Before
you can use them in a sentence, you must conjugate them. That means that you change them so that they match
the subject. This simple three-step process consists of:
1. Taking off the ______________________.
2. Writing down the ____________________ after each subject pronoun.
3. Adding the _________________________.
Let’s see if you can apply the rules to the following verbs.
machen
tun
-ich
____________
____________
-du
____________
____________
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
-ihr
____________
____________
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
Some verbs, however, need special attention. They need to add or delete a letter in order to make pronunciation
easier. Can you conjugate these verbs?
wandern
arbeiten
finden
heissen
tanzen
-ich
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-du
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-ihr
____________
____________
____________
_________
______
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
____________
_________
______
Which form did you have to change for wandern? __________
What did you have to add to arbeiten and finden? __________
What did you leave off of heissen and tanzen?
__________
Irregulare Verben
Though most verbs are regular, there are some verbs which have to be memorize. Fortunately there are very
few of these. Two, however, are:
seinhaben
werden
which means ___ ___
which means ___ _______
which means ___ _______
-ich
__________
__________
__________
-du
__________
__________
__________
-er,sie,es
__________
__________
__________
-ihr
__________
__________
__________
-wir,sie,Sie __________
__________
__________
The rest of the irregular verbs have an easy pattern for conjugation. Do you know how to conjugate the
following irregular verbs?
fahren
laufen
sprechen
essen
sehen
lesen
-ich
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
*du
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
*er,sie,es
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
-ihr
__________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
-wir,sie,Sie __________ _________ __________ __________
__________ ______
What are the only two conjugations that differ from the way you do a regular verb? _____ and _____
What did you change about these forms for fahren and laufen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
for sprechen and essen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
for sehen and lesen?
The ____ changed to an _____.
Modal Verben
Modal verbs express how one ______ about an action. They do not express the action itself; therefore, they
must accompany an action verb. These verbs have a different way of conjugating.
können
müssen
sollen
dürfen
-ich
____________
____________
____________
_________
-du
____________
____________
____________
_________
-er,sie,es
____________
____________
____________
_________
-ihr
____________
____________
____________
_________
-wir,sie,Sie ____________
____________
____________
_________
Wollen and mögen also modal verbs. (Möchten acts like a modal verb as well.)
When there is more than one verb in a sentence, they cannot both be in the coveted second position. One must
go to the end of the sentence, my friend. Can you rewrite these sentences to include the modal verbs?
Remember the C-clamp!
Ich spiele Tennis. (mögen)
_____________________________________________
Gehst du ins Kino? (wollen)
_____________________________________________
Trennbare Verben
There are some verbs that are made up of two parts, a prefix and the verb itself. In English the equivalents of
these verbs tend to have prepositions. When we conjugate these, they split in half and the prefix goes on the
end of the sentence.
(einkaufen) Ich __________ bei Kroger’s _____.
(mitkommen) __________ du morgen _____?
(aufräumen) Wir __________ das Zimmer _____.
(aufmachen) Ihr sollt das Paket _______________.
Befehlsform
When giving commands in English, the subject is always an understood _____. This presents a small problem
in German because there are _____ words for you. They are _____, _____ and _____. Each form of you has a
different command form. How would you tell the following people to do the things listed?
schreiben
zuhören
*sprechen
*fahren
*lesen
Peter,
__________________________________________________________________
Hans und Franz,
__________________________________________________________________
Frau Farbisene,
__________________________________________________________________
Klasse,
__________________________________________________________________
Wortstellung
In addition to learning lots of vocabulary and memorizing the articles, we also learned how to put the
vocabulary into sentences. When we do that, what is the normal order
for a statement? ______ then _______
for a question? ______ then _______
Underline the verbs in the following exercise, then make sentences or questions with the elements?
1. besuchen / ich / meine Oma / . /
___________________________________
2. Hausaufgaben / machen / wir / . /
___________________________________
3. du / bringen / die Musik / ? /
___________________________________
4. arbeiten / am Wochenende / er / ? / ___________________________________
When we have verbs with separable prefixes, we remove the prefix and place it at the end of the sentence
before conjugating the verb.
5. wir / einkaufen / morgen / . /
___________________________________
6. mitkommen / heute / du / ? /
___________________________________
Perfekt
Once we mastered all of those basic concepts, we learned how to communicate in the conversational past tense.
This form requires a helping verb and a past participle. The formula for making this tense with weak verbs is:
__________ + _ _ + ________ + _
This formula is slightly altered if the verb has an inseparable prefix, a separable prefix or if it is French! Can
you write the following sentences in the past tense?
1. Ich spiele Tennis
Ich __________ Tennis ____________________.
2. Wir tanzen nicht gern.
_____________________________________________________
3. Kaufst du ein?
_____________________________________________________
4. Ihr besucht die Oma.
_____________________________________________________
5. Vati repariert mein Fahrrad.
_____________________________________________________
For strong verbs, you had to determine which helping verb to use and had to memorize the past participle.
1. Die Kinder essen kein Gemüse. _____________________________________________________
2. Trinkst du Milch?
_____________________________________________________
3. Fritz und ich schlafen im Park.
_____________________________________________________
4. Ingo geht nach Hause.
_____________________________________________________
5. Ich bin 14 Jahre alt.
_____________________________________________________
When would you use sein as the helping verb? ______________________________________________
Präteritum
As with English, there are ___ different ways to make past tense. The Imperfect (Präteritum) is the one word
form of the past tense. It is used for ________________ about past events, except when writing personal
letters. All of these are conjugated like modal verbs; however, there is only a formula for the weak verbs:
_______________ + _____ + modal conjugation
Can you write the following sentences in the imperfect tense?
1. Ich spiele Tennis
Ich _______________ Tennis.
2. Kaufst du ein?
_____________________________________________________
3. Vati repariert mein Fahrrad.
_____________________________________________________
4. Ihr besucht die Oma.
_____________________________________________________
5. Wir tanzen nicht gern.
_____________________________________________________
For strong verbs, you had to memorize the imperfect form and conjugated it like a modal verb.
1. Ich bin 14 Jahre alt.
_____________________________________________________
2. Trinkst du Milch?
_____________________________________________________
3. Ingo geht nach Hause.
_____________________________________________________
4. Fritz und du schlaft im Park.
_____________________________________________________
5. Die Kinder essen kein Gemüse. _____________________________________________________
Plusquamperfekt
This is our third form of past tense, the past perfect tense. It is made up of elements of both of the previous
forms. The basic formula for weak verbs is:
________ or ________ (conjugated like a modal verb)... ___ + _________ + __
Can you write the following sentence in the past perfect?
1. Wir spielen Tennis.
Wir __________ Tennis ____________________.
2. Goethe ist 15 Jahre alt.
_____________________________________________________
3. Ich habe Kopfschmerzen.
_____________________________________________________
Futurum
The future tense in German is taken care of by simply using the verb werden (to be going to or to become). As
with the modal verbs, this verb simply expresses the subject’s intentions towards the action verb. Since this
means that there will be two verbs needed to complete the idea, the C-clamp structure will be used.
The conjugations of werden were covered previously.
1. Ich reise nach Berlin.
_____________________________________________________
2. Wir sehen fern.
_____________________________________________________
Subjunktiv II
The subjunctive case is used to express hypothetical situations, wishful thinking or polite formality. There are
two ways to express this. The first (and easiest) formula is:
___________ (conjugated like a modal verb) …________________.
The second formula uses the _____________ form of the verb + ____ + ___ + modal verb conjugation.
Can you write the following sentences in the two forms of subjunctive tense?
1. Ich spiele Tennis
Ich _______________ Tennis __________________.
2. Ich spiele Tennis
_____________________________________________________
For strong verbs, you had to determine which helping verb to use and had to memorize the past participle.
1. Ich bin glücklich.
_____________________________________________________
2. Ich bin glücklich.
_____________________________________________________
3. Das Kind ißt kein Gemüse.
_____________________________________________________
4. Das Kind ißt kein Gemüse.
_____________________________________________________
In addition to these topics, we also covered relative clauses, genetive case, object pronouns, accusative, dative
and two-way prepositions and verbs with prepositions. These are covered on the practice test and will be on the
final exam.
We have also covered several different vocabulary topics. Be sure to review that vocabulary, as it will play a
role. Know the nouns and their articles!
Combine the following sentences with weil or dass.
7.
Meinst du? Wir könne sein Autogramm bekommen.
________________________________________________________________________
8.
Wir rachen nicht. Es schadet unsere Gesundheit.
________________________________________________________________________
9.
Das Auto hat 50.000 Euro gekostet. Ich habe gehört.
________________________________________________________________________
10.
Ihr habt kein Geld. Ihr solltet kein Auto kaufen.
________________________________________________________________________
Combine the following sentences using a relative pronoun. Don’t forget to change the word order.
Das ist der Mann. Der Mann arbeitet in dem Geschäft.
________________________________________________________________________
Ich wollte den Hund kaufen. Der Hund war sehr groß.
________________________________________________________________________
Wer war das Mädchen? Das Mädchen war gerade hier.
________________________________________________________________________
Ich suche die Frau. Ich habe der Frau ein Buch geliehen.
________________________________________________________________________
Questions for Frau Dieckman?????
Email sdieckman@dentonisd.org
Präpositionen
After memorizing certain prepositions
Ich lebe für Grammatik-- the Sequel… Coming soon! 
Starring:
Nominativ, Akkusativ, Dativ und Genetiv
Pronomen im Nominativ, Akkusativ und Dativ
Präpositionen
Adjektiven und Adverbien
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