Sentence Structure and Conjunctions

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Sentence Structure and Conjunctions
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Word Order of Sentences and Clauses: Sentences are grammatically independent units of
expression. A sentence comprises one or more clauses. A clause has both a subject (sometimes
understood) and a predicate (verb) and it functions either as an independent unit (main clause) or
as a dependent unit (subordinate clause used as an adverb, an adjective, or a noun).
Sentences are classified according to structure and function.
Structure
SIMPLE:
(I know.) [main clause]
Ich weiß.
COMPOUND:
Ich weiß aber sie wissen auch. (I know but they know also.) [two main
clauses]
COMPLEX:
Ich weiß daß sie wissen.
COMPOUNDIch weiß und sie wissen daß (I know that they know.) [main
clause/sub. clause]
COMPLEX:
ich weiß.
(I know and they know that I know.)
[two main clauses/subordinate clause]
Â
Function
DECLARATIVE:
(I'm going home.) [statement]
Ich gehe nach Hause.
IMPERATIVE:
Gehe (Gehen Sie) nach Hause! (Go home!) [command]
INTERROGATIVE:
(Are you going home!) [question]
Gehst du (Gehen Sie) nach
EXCLAMATORY:
(Would I were also going home!)
Hause?
[exclamatory]
Ginge ich auch nach Hause!
The position of the finite verb (the inflected part of the predicate) in a German clause is more
rigidly fixed than in English. In a simple affirmative German statement it is the second element
in the main clause. The first element is usually the subject, but this position may be taken for
emphasis by an adverb, an adverbial clause or phrase, prepositional phrase, subordinate clause,
or by a direct or indirect object if its (or its article's) inflection makes its roll in the clause clear.
If the subject is so displaced, it follows the verb. Non-inflected parts of the main verb
(infinitives, past participles, and separable verb prefixes) come at the end of the main clause. The
following examples illustrate word order in simple declarative German sentences:
Simple Declarative Sentence
Other Elements
Past Participle,
Subject or
Finite
(objects, adverbs, adverbial
Infinitive,
emphasized other elements
Verb
phrases)
or separable prefixes
Â
Ich
sehe Â
Â
Â
I see
Â
Ich
sehe
dich
Â
I see you
Ich
habe
dich
gesehen [past participle]
I have seen (saw) you
Mein armer alter
dich gestern zufällig in der
hat
gesehen [past participle]
Großvater
Schule
My poor old grandfather saw you yesterday by chance in the school.
Meine Mutter
wird
dich ihm morgen
vorstellen [infinitive]
My mother will introduce you to him tomorrow.
The above pattern is varied to shift emphasis as shown below:
Variations on the Simple Declarative Sentence Structure
SUBJECT
Other Elements
V
e
Direct
r
Object
b
Indirect
a
Object
Objects, l
Prepositional
Adverbs, Â Past Infinitive
FINITE VERB
Phrase
SUBJECT Prepositional P Participle
Phrases
Adverb
r
etc.
e
Subordinate
clause
f
i
x
Take the simple declarative sentence Der Mann gibt dem Kind den Brief. (The man gives the
child the letter.) This sentence can be varied as follows:
Der Mann gibt dem Kind den Brief
Dem Kind gibt der Mann den Brief
Den Brief gibt der Mann dem Kind
The finite verb is move to the first position in simple imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory
sentences. When it is expressed, the subject follows the verb. When interrogative adverbs or
adverbial expressions are used, they precede the finite verb. Typical interrogative adverbs and
adverbial expression are as follows:
Interrogative Adverbs and Adverbial Expressions
wann (when)
Wann kommt er an? (When does he arrive?)
warum (why)
Warum kommt er? (Why is he coming>)
wie (how)
Wie ist das Wetter heute? (How is the weather today?)
wie lange (how long) Wie lange dauert es? (How long does it last?)
wie oft (how often)
Wie oft besuchen sie dich? (How often do they visit you?)
wieviel (how much)
Wieviel kostet es? (How much does it cost?)
was (what)
Was wollen Sie hier? (What do you want here?)
wo (where)
Wo wohnen Sie (Where do you live?)
wohin (where [to])
Wohin gehen Sie? (Where are you going?)
woher (where [from]) Woher kommst du? (Where did you come from?)
Note: Wo (where) implies no motion. Verbs of motion require direction be indicated either
away from [wohin (where to)] or toward [woher (where from)] the speaker.
Interrogative pronouns are used...
Plik z chomika:
heilkraut1
Inne pliki z tego folderu:

Absolute Comparatives and Superlatives.doc (30 KB)
 Accusative Case.doc (34 KB)
 ADJECTIVE ENDINGS.doc (78 KB)
 Case.doc (27 KB)
 Command forms.doc (23 KB)
Inne foldery tego chomika:
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